A nitro-arginine derivative of trimebutine (NO2-Arg-Trim) attenuates pain induced by colorectal distension in conscious rats.
ABSTRACT Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by dysfunction of the afferent pathways that may lead to visceral hypersensitivity. Trimebutine is a weak opioid receptor agonist used in the treatment of IBS. We report on the effects of a novel derivative in which trimebutine has been salified with nitro-arginine(NO2-Arg-Trim), in modulating nociception to colorectal distension (CRD) in intact and post-colitis rats,an animal model that mimics some features of IBS. Colorectal sensitivity and pain were assessed by measuring the abdominal withdrawal score (AWR) during CRD. Healthy rats were treated with vehicle,trimebutine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or NO2-Arg-Trim (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg i.p.). Post-colitis, allodynic rats were investigated 4 weeks after colitis induction. Treating healthy rats with NO2-Arg-Trim resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation of CRD-induced nociception and in an inhibition of CRD-induced overexpression of spinal cFOS mRNA. NO2-Arg-Trim-induced antinociception was reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and by the NO synthase-cGMP pathway inhibitor methylene blue, while L-NAME had no effect.The antinociceptive effect of NO2-Arg-Trim was maintained in a rodent model of post-inflammatory allodynia. In this setting,NO2-Arg-Trim but not trimebutine, significantly down-regulated the spinal cFOS mRNA expression and increased blood concentrations of NO2 +NO3. Moreover, the expression of several genes involved in inflammation and pain, as IL-1beta, TNFalpha, COX2 and iNOS, was up-regulated in colonic tissue from post-colitis rats and NO2-Arg-Trim, but not trimebutine, effectively reversed this effect. In summary, these data suggest that NO2-Arg-Trim inhibits nociception induced by CRD in both healthy and post-colitis, allodynic rats. The NO2-arginine moiety interacts with the opioid agonist trimebutine to potentiate its analgesic activity. This study provides evidence that NO2-arginine derivative of trimebutine might have beneficial effect in the treatment of painful intestinal disorders.
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ABSTRACT: The antinociceptive activity of an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 alone or combined with morphine was assessed in the formalin test. Local administration of 1-[4-ethoxy-3-(6,7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)phenylsulfonyl]-4-methyl piperazine (sildenafil, inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5) produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the second phase of the formalin test in female Wistar rats. In contrast, morphine produced antinociception in both phases. Sildenafil significantly increased the morphine-induced antinociception. The antinociception produced by the drugs alone or combined was due to a local action, as its administration in the contralateral paw was ineffective. Pretreatment of the paws with NG-l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor), 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) or naloxone blocked the effect of the combination. Results suggest that opioid receptors, NO and cyclic GMP are relevant in the combination-induced antinociception. In conclusion, sildenafil produced antinociception and increased that produced by morphine, probably through the inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation.European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2000; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of local anesthetics, such as lidocaine, has been proposed in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Trimebutine maleate (TMB) displays a local anesthetic activity higher than that of lidocaine in rabbit corneal reflex. TMB and nor-TMB its main metabolite in human show similar affinity to that of bupivacaine toward sodium channel labeled by [3H]batrachotoxin and block sodium currents in sensory neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TMB and nor-TMB in comparison to lidocaine and bupivacaine in a rat model of acute colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). A single intracolonic instillation of TNBS (50 mg/kg dissolved in ethanol 30%) led to early plasma extravasation then macroscopic damage (hyperemia and necrosis), increased colonic weight and tissular MPO, a marker of neutrophilic infiltration. Local administration of TMB at dose of 3 to 60 mg/kg, 30 min before, 24 and 48 h after colitis induction, significantly reduced the severity of colitis. Nor-TMB (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) as well as lidocaine (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced colitis while bupivacaine at 10 mg/kg did not affect it significantly. In contrast systemic administration of TMB, nor-TMB and lidocaine at 10 mg/kg had no significant effect. Furthermore, local administration of TMB (30 mg/kg) and lidocaine (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced plasmatic extravasation. In conclusion, intracolonic treatment with TMB and nor-TMB improved acute experimental TNBS-induced colitis in rat and these effects could be explained by their local anesthetic activity.Life Sciences 01/2005; 76(3):319-29. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: H(2)S functions as a neuromodulator and exerts anti-inflammatory activities. Recent data indicate that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is linked to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we have investigated the role of a novel H(2)S-releasing derivative of mesalamine (5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-(5-thioxo-5H-[1,2]dithiol-3yl)-phenyl ester, ATB-429) in modulating nociception to colorectal distension (CRD), a model that mimics some features of IBS, in healthy and postcolitic rats. Four graded (0.4-1.6 ml of water) CRDs were produced in conscious rats, and colorectal sensitivity and pain were assessed by measuring the abdominal withdrawal response and spinal c-Fos expression. In healthy rats, ATB-429 dose dependently (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg) attenuated CRD-induced hypersensitivity and significantly inhibited CRD-induced overexpression of spinal c-FOS mRNA, whereas mesalamine had no effect. ATB-429-induced antinociception was reversed by glibenclamide, a ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor. The antinociceptive effect of ATB-429 was maintained in a rodent model of postinflammatory hypersensitivity (4 weeks after colitis induction). At a dose of 100 mg/kg, ATB-429 reversed the allodynic response caused by CRD in postcolitic rats. Colonic cyclooxygenase-2 and interkeukin-1beta mRNA and spinal c-FOS mRNA expression were significantly down-regulated by ATB-429, but not by mesalamine. ATB-429, but not mesalamine, increased blood concentrations of H(2)S in both healthy and postcolitic rats. Taken together, these data suggest that ATB-429 inhibits hypersensitivity induced by CRD in both healthy and postcolitic, allodynic rats by a K(ATP) channel-mediated mechanism. This study provides evidence that H(2)S-releasing drugs might have beneficial effects in the treatment of painful intestinal disorders.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 11/2006; 319(1):447-58. · 3.89 Impact Factor