High-temperature beverages and foods and esophageal cancer risk-A systematic review

Digestive Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 08/2009; 125(3):491-524. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.24445
Source: PubMed


Coffee, tea and maté may cause esophageal cancer (EC) by causing thermal injury to the esophageal mucosa. If so, the risk of EC attributable to thermal injury could be large in populations in which these beverages are commonly consumed. In addition, these drinks may cause or prevent EC via their chemical constituents. Therefore, a large number of epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of an indicator of amount or temperature of use of these drinks or other hot foods and beverages with risk of EC. We conducted a systematic review of these studies and report the results for amount and temperature of use separately. By searching PubMed and the ISI, we found 59 eligible studies. For coffee and tea, there was little evidence for an association between amount of use and EC risk; however, the majority of studies showed an increased risk of EC associated with higher drinking temperature which was statistically significant in most of them. For maté drinking, the number of studies was limited, but they consistently showed that EC risk increased with both amount consumed and temperature, and these 2 were independent risk factors. For other hot foods and drinks, over half of the studies showed statistically significant increased risks of EC associated with higher temperature of intake. Overall, the available results strongly suggest that high-temperature beverage drinking increases the risk of EC. Future studies will require standardized strategies that allow for combining data and results should be reported by histological subtypes of EC.

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Available from: Farhad Islami, Sep 01, 2015
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    • "It is also worth considering the possibility that self-induced vomiting could cause chronic physical damage to oesophageal mucosa through repeated microtrauma, rather than chemical damage caused by gastric acid. For example, another type of physical damage, thermal injury, has been associated with subsequent increased risk of oesophageal cancer (and specifically squamous cell carcinoma [29]) in some studies [30]. However, the most likely explanation for our findings would seem to be confounding by the main established risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, namely tobacco and alcohol, perhaps compounded by chronic nutritional deficiency [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It has been suggested that the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma might be increased in patients with a history of eating disorders due to acidic damage to oesophageal mucosa caused by self-induced vomiting practiced as a method of weight control. Eating disorders have also been associated with risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus, including alcohol use disorders, as well as smoking and nutritional deficiencies, which have been associated with both main sub-types of oesophageal cancer. There have been several case reports of oesophageal cancer (both main sub-types) arising in patients with a history of eating disorders. Methods: We used linked records of hospitalisation, cancer registration and mortality in Scotland spanning 1981-2012 to investigate the risk of oesophageal cancer among patients with a prior history of hospitalisation with eating disorder. The cohort was restricted to patients aged ≥10 years and <60 years at the date of first admission with eating disorder. Disregarding the first year of follow-up, we calculated indirectly standardised incidence ratios using the general population as the reference group to generate expected numbers of cases (based on age-, sex-, socio-economic deprivation category-, and calendar period-specific rates of disease). Results: After exclusions, the cohort consisted of 3617 individuals contributing 52,455 person-years at risk. The median duration of follow-up was 13.9 years. Seven oesophageal cancers were identified, as compared with 1.14 expected, yielding a standardised incidence ratio of 6.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.5-12.6). All were squamous cell carcinomas arising in females with a prior history of anorexia nervosa. Conclusions: Patients hospitalised previously with eating disorders are at increased risk of developing oesophageal cancer. Confounding by established risk factors (alcohol, smoking, and nutritional deficiency) seems a more likely explanation than acidic damage through self-induced vomiting because none of the incident cases of oesophageal cancer were adenocarcinomas, and because the study cohort had higher than background rates of hospitalisation with alcohol-related conditions and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Cancer Epidemiology 03/2015; 24(3). DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2015.02.009 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "In the regions of the highest risk, approximately 90% of oesophageal cancers are SCCs [10]. Although the pathogenesis of OSCC in high-risk regions remains unclear, some of the aetiological factors thought to be responsible are thermal damage to oesophageal mucosa from ingestion of food and beverages at high temperatures [11] [12], poor nutrition including low intake of fruits and vegetables, increased consumption of processed and red meat, pickled and preserved foods [13] [14], exposure to nitrosamines [15] and certain infectious agents, in particular, human papillomaviruses (HPV) [7]. The International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) has acknowledged HPV involvement in head and neck, particularly oropharyngeal, tonsillar, and oral SCC, but has not yet made a conclusive statement about a causal relationship between HPV and OSCC [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30-5500). All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47-190.33). Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.
    Journal of Oncology 04/2014; 2014(18):236482. DOI:10.1155/2014/236482
    • "Research on cancer risk factors remains the foundation and focus of cancer prevention and treatment investigations (Zhang and Wang, 2009; James, 1999; Brownstein et al., 2002; Gatton et al., 2005; David et al., 2012). Presently, risk factor research is focused on poor eating habits (Lei et al., 2006), smoking and other unhealthy lifestyles (Liu et al., 2006), stress and other mental health and illness factors (Pan, 2006), the absence of trace elements in diets (Yang, 2009; Huang et al., 2002), upper gastrointestinal disease history (Yang et al., 2008), genetic predisposition for various cancers (Luan et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2008), economic conditions (Tong et al., 2007), and food contamination and carcinogens in the local environment, including water (Farhad et al., 2009; Nobuaki et al. 1996; Li et al., 2006). Most studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer and water pollution reflect the individual case specifics in a distinct geographic region (Han et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2007; Zhu et al., 2010; Shen et al., 2002; Wei et al., 1999; Soliman et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Esophageal cancer exhibits one of the highest incidence and mortality rates in China. Malignant tumors caused by esophageal cancer, and the relationship to environmental factors has been the focus of many public health studies. This study applied spatial analysis to ascertain the relationship between water pollution and esophageal cancer mortality rates nationwide. We employed two datasets, including a national investigation of esophageal cancer rates and distribution, and national water quality grades in China’s primary rivers and lakes. Esophageal cancer data were grouped based on different water quality grades, which included a scaled buffer distance from rivers and lakes. Non-parametric correlation analyses were performed to examine the presence or absence of the following correlations: (i) esophageal cancer mortality and buffer distance from rivers and lakes; and (ii) esophageal cancer mortality and water quality grade values. The present study revealed a significant positive correlation between widespread water pollution and esophageal cancer mortality nationwide; and a significant negative correlation between esophageal cancer mortality, and buffer distance from rivers and lakes.
    Journal of Geographical Sciences 02/2014; 24(1):46-58. DOI:10.1007/s11442-014-1072-8 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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