Inhibiting JNK dephosphorylation and induction of apoptosis by novel anticancer agent NSC-741909 in cancer cells.
ABSTRACT NSC-741909 is a recently identified novel anticancer agent that suppresses the growth of several NCI-60 cancer cell lines with a unique anticancer spectrum. However, its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To determine the molecular mechanisms of NSC-741909-induced antitumor activity, we analyzed the changes of 77 protein biomarkers in a sensitive lung cancer cell line after treatment with this compound by using reverse-phase protein microarray. The results showed that phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (P38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK) were persistently elevated by the treatment with NSC-741909. However, only the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 effectively blocked the apoptosis induced by NSC-741909. Moreover, NSC-741909-mediated apoptosis was also blocked by a dominant-negative JNK construct, suggesting that sustained activation of JNK is critical for the apoptosis induction. Further studies revealed that treatment with NSC-741909 suppressed dephosphorylation of JNK and the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1. Thus, NSC-741909-mediated inhibition of JNK dephosphorylation results in sustained JNK activation, which leads to apoptosis in cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: K-Ras mutations are frequently found in various cancers and are associated with resistance to treatment or poor prognosis. Similarly, poor outcomes have recently been observed in cancer patients with overexpression of protein kinase C iota (PKCiota), an atypical protein kinase C that is activated by oncogenic Ras protein and is required for K-Ras-induced transformation and colonic carcinogenesis in vivo. Thus far, there is no effective agent for treatment of cancers with K-Ras mutations or PKCiota overexpression. By synthetic lethality screening, we identified a small compound (designated oncrasin-1) that effectively kills various human lung cancer cells with K-Ras mutations at low or submicromolar concentrations. The cytotoxic effects correlated with apoptosis induction, as was evidenced by increase of apoptotic cells and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 upon the treatment of oncrasin-1 in sensitive cells. Treatment with oncrasin-1 also led to abnormal aggregation of PKCiota in the nucleus of sensitive cells but not in resistant cells. Furthermore, oncrasin-1-induced apoptosis was blocked by siRNA of K-Ras or PKCiota, suggesting that oncrasin-1 is targeted to a novel K-Ras/PKCiota pathway. The in vivo administration of oncrasin-1 suppressed the growth of K-ras mutant human lung tumor xenografts by >70% and prolonged the survival of nude mice bearing these tumors, without causing detectable toxicity. Our results indicate that oncrasin-1 or its active analogues could be a novel class of anticancer agents, which effectively kill K-Ras mutant cancer cells.Cancer Research 10/2008; 68(18):7403-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Efforts have been made to develop a chemoprevention that selectively triggers apoptosis in malignant cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated that a mutated Ha-Ras activity is required in Anisomycin-induced apoptosis in transformed keratinocytes. Anisomycin stimulates JNK activity and apoptosis in oncogenic Ha-Ras positive cells, but not in normal keratinocytes. This effect was demonstrated in stably transfected cells with dominant negative Ha-Ras, that protected transformed cells, and oncogenic Ha-Ras that sensitized non-transformed cells to Anisomycin-induced apoptosis. Lastly, the treatment of cells with inhibitors of the JNK displayed resistance to Anisomycin induced apoptosis. These data suggests that the oncogenic Ha-Ras is important for Anisomycin-induced JNK activation and apoptosis in transformed keratinocytes.FEBS Letters 12/2005; 579(28):6459-64. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Through its type 1 receptor (TNFR1), the cytokine TNF elicits an unusually wide range of biological responses, including inflammation, tumor necrosis, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated how TNFR1 activates different effector functions; the protein kinase JNK, transcription factor NF-kappaB, and apoptosis. We found that the three responses are mediated through separate pathways. Recruitment of the signal transducer FADD to the TNFR1 complex mediates apoptosis but not NF-kappaB or JNK activation. Two other signal transducers, RIP and TRAF2, mediate both JNK and NF-kappaB activation. These two responses, however, diverge downstream to TRAF2. Most importantly, JNK activation is not involved in induction of apoptosis, while activation of NF-kappaB protects against TNF-induced apoptosis.Cell 12/1996; 87(3):565-76. · 31.96 Impact Factor