Obesity and overweight in Canada: an updated cost-of-illness study

Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6Z 1Y6.
Obesity Reviews (Impact Factor: 7.86). 05/2009; 11(1):31-40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00579.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study is to update the estimates of the economic burden of illness because of overweight and obesity in Canada by incorporating the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity, findings of new related comorbidities and rise in the national healthcare expenditure. The burden was estimated from a societal perspective using the prevalence-based cost-of-illness methodology. Results from a literature review of the risks of 18 related comorbidities were combined with prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada to estimate the extent to which each comorbidity is attributable to overweight and obesity. The direct costs were extracted from the National Health Expenditure Database and allocated to each comorbidity using weights principally from the Economic Burden of Illness in Canada. The study showed that the total direct costs attributable to overweight and obesity in Canada were $6.0 billion in 2006, with 66% attributable to obesity. This corresponds to 4.1% of the total health expenditures in Canada in 2006. The inclusion of newly identified comorbidities increased the direct cost estimates of obesity by 25%, while the rise in national healthcare expenditure accounted for a 19% increase. Policies to reduce being overweight and obese could potentially save the Canadian healthcare system millions of dollars.

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    ABSTRACT: Internationally there is limited empirical evidence on the impact of overweight and obesity on health service use and costs. We estimate the burden of hospitalisation-admissions, days and costs-associated with above-normal BMI. Population-based prospective cohort study involving 224,254 adults aged ≥45y in Australia (45 and Up Study). Baseline questionnaire data (2006-2009) were linked to hospitalisation and death records (median follow-up 3.42y) and hospital cost data. The relationships between BMI and hospital admissions and days were modelled using zero-inflated negative binomial regression; generalised gamma models were used to model costs. Analyses were stratified by sex and age (45-64, 65-79, ≥80y), and adjusted for age, area of residence, education, income, smoking, alcohol-intake and private health insurance status. Population attributable fractions were also calculated. There were 459,346 admissions (0.55/person-year) and 1,483,523 hospital days (1.76/person-year) during follow-up. For ages 45-64y and 65-79y, rates of admissions, days and costs increased progressively with increments of above-normal BMI. Compared to BMI 22.5-<25kg/m2, rates of admissions and days were 1.64-2.54 times higher for BMI 40-50kg/m2; costs were 1.14-1.24 times higher for BMI 27.5-<30kg/m2, rising to 1.77-2.15 times for BMI 40-50kg/m2. The BMI-hospitalisation relationship was less clear for ≥80y. We estimated that among Australians 45-79y, around 1 in every 8 admissions are attributable to overweight and obesity (2% to overweight, 11% to obesity), as are 1 in every 6 days in hospital (2%, 16%) and 1 in every 6 dollars spent on hospitalisation (3%, 14%). The dose-response relationship between BMI and hospital use and costs in mid-age and older Australians in the above-normal BMI range suggests even small downward shifts in BMI among these people could result in considerable reductions in their annual health care costs; whether this would result in long-term savings to the health care system is not known from this study.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118599. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118599 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In hospitals, length of stay (LOS) is a priority but it may be prolonged by malnutrition. This study seeks to determine the contributors to malnutrition at admission and evaluate its effect on LOS. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in 18 Canadian hospitals from July 2010 to February 2013 in patients ≥ 18 years admitted for ≥ 2 days. Excluded were those admitted directly to the intensive care unit; obstetric, psychiatry, or palliative wards; or medical day units. At admission, the main nutrition evaluation was subjective global assessment (SGA). Body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength (HGS) were also performed to assess other aspects of nutrition. Additional information was collected from patients and charts review during hospitalization. Results: One thousand fifteen patients were enrolled: based on SGA, 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42%-48%) were malnourished, and based on BMI, 32% (95% CI, 29%-35%) were obese. Independent contributors to malnutrition at admission were Charlson comorbidity index > 2, having 3 diagnostic categories, relying on adult children for grocery shopping, and living alone. The median (range) LOS was 6 (1-117) days. After controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and disease-related factors and treatment, malnutrition at admission was independently associated with prolonged LOS (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.86). Other nutrition-related factors associated with prolonged LOS were lower HGS at admission, receiving nutrition support, and food intake < 50%. Obesity was not a predictor. Conclusion: Malnutrition at admission is prevalent and associated with prolonged LOS. Complex disease and age-related social factors are contributors. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
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