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Understanding Water Deficit Stress-Induced Changes in Basic Metabolisms of Higher Plants for Biotechnologically and Sustainably Improving Agriculture and Ecoenvironment in Arid Regions on the Globe

Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 7.84). 06/2009; 29(2):131-51. DOI: 10.1080/07388550902869792
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Water is vital for plant growth, development and productivity. Permanent or temporary water deficit stress limits the growth and distribution of natural and artificial vegetation and the performance of cultivated plants (crops) more than any other environmental factor. Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants (crops) in arid and semiarid regions with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of soil-water stress tolerance in these regions, especially in the water-wind eroded crossing region, it is very important to link physiological and biochemical studies to molecular work in genetically tractable model plants and important native plants, and further extending them to practical ecological restoration and efficient crop production. Although basic studies and practices aimed at improving soil water stress resistance and plant water use efficiency have been carried out for many years, the mechanisms involved at different scales are still not clear. Further understanding and manipulating soil-plant water relationships and soil-water stress tolerance at the scales of ecology, physiology and molecular biology can significantly improve plant productivity and environmental quality. Currently, post-genomics and metabolomics are very important in exploring anti-drought gene resources in various life forms, but modern agriculturally sustainable development must be combined with plant physiological measures in the field, on the basis of which post-genomics and metabolomics have further practical prospects. In this review, we discuss physiological and molecular insights and effects in basic plant metabolism, drought tolerance strategies under drought conditions in higher plants for sustainable agriculture and ecoenvironments in arid and semiarid areas of the world. We conclude that biological measures are the bases for the solutions to the issues relating to the different types of sustainable development.

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    • "It is cultivated in a wide range of climatic and environmental condition included drought areas of the poor and vulnerable farming systems in the arid and semi – arid tropics of Asia and Africa (Bashir et al., 2012; Stich et al., 2010; Subi and Idris 2013). Drought stress is a major serious environmental constraints limiting crop production in marginal areas and affecting yield stability under the rain-fed agriculture (Shao et al., 2009). In the general grain yield production of Pearl millet crop is low due to cultivate under low input conditions of subsistence farming systems in marginal environments (Govindaraj et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted under water stress in vegetative and reproductive growth stages at two locations (Shambat and Medani) in Sudan during the season (2003/2004). Genotypic and phenotypic variability, genetic advance and heritability in a broad sense were estimated in a split-plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications. Fifteen genotypes of maize were used for the study. Phenotypic correlation coefficient between grain yield and 25%, 50% and 95% of flowering trait anthesis and silking were evaluated. All flowering stages were found significant differences among the genotypes, except days to 95% anthesis. Significant differences among water treatments were observed for days to 25% silking at Medani. High heritability, genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance were exhibited by days to 25% silking. Grain yield was significantly and negatively associated with days to (50% and 95%) silking. Based on the results drought stress at vegetative and reproductive stages of maize results in a drastic reduction in grain yield, and flowering character would be the important selection, creation for maize improvement under drought stress. Keywords: Maize (Zea mays L.), Genetic variability, heritability, correlation, flowering, drought
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    • "It is cultivated in a wide range of climatic and environmental condition included drought areas of the poor and vulnerable farming systems in the arid and semi – arid tropics of Asia and Africa (Bashir et al., 2012; Stich et al., 2010; Subi and Idris 2013). Drought stress is a major serious environmental constraints limiting crop production in marginal areas and affecting yield stability under the rain-fed agriculture (Shao et al., 2009). In the general grain yield production of Pearl millet crop is low due to cultivate under low input conditions of subsistence farming systems in marginal environments (Govindaraj et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve genotypes of Pearl millet were evaluated under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid zone of El Fasher Research Station, Sudan for two consecutive seasons (2010 and 2011). Genotypic and phenotypic variability, heritability in a broad sense and genetic advance were estimated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. High genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability estimate (above 95 %) and genetic advance were recorded for grain yield (kg/ha) followed by straw yield (kg/ha) in both seasons. A number of heads/plant expressed low genetic advance with low heritability in both seasons. Highly significant and significant different among genotypes were found for all characters except number of heads/plant was observed non-significant. The high yielding genotypes were Dembi (Yellow), Sudan1 and SADC (Long) with grain yields of 499.8, 424.9 and 421.5 kg/ha, respectively. Grain yield kg/ha was significant and positively correlated with straw yield (kg/ha), plant height, number of heads/plant and 1000- grain weight, while significant and negative correlated with days to 95% maturity. Therefore, straw yield (kg/ha), plant height, 1000- grain weight, days to 95% maturity and number of heads/plant to be the important characters which would be used in selection for Pearl millet improvement. The promising genotypes identified in this study could provide valuable sources of resistance to climate-change-related stresses and for other consequent breeding activities in pearl millet improvement. Key words: Pearl millet, correlation, genetic variability, broad sense heritability.
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    • "Drought stress, which is the most serious environmental problem limiting crop production in rain-fed agriculture (Bahieldin et al., 2005), can severely impact plant growth and development, limit plant production and the crop performance (Shao et al., 2009). Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits agricultural crop production (Reddy et al., 2004). "
    08/2014; 6(9). DOI:10.5539/jas.v6n9p184
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