An 11-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer with diabetes mellitus was presumptively diagnosed with Evans' syndrome (ES). Because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids in a diabetic dog, a single infusion of human intravenous immunoglobulin and oral leflunomide were used as first-line immunomodulatory therapy, after informed owner consent was received. This treatment resulted in complete remission of the ES, and leflunomide was discontinued after 10 months of therapy. Over a 19-month follow-up, the dog did not relapse and has remained a well-regulated diabetic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarises the current understanding of immune response and T cell subsets in the context of development of autoimmunity in the dog. Mode of action and rational usage in immune-mediated disease in the dog are discussed for the following drugs: glucocorticoids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, ciclosporin, tacrolimus, human intravenous immunoglobulin, vincristine, danazol, leflunomide, mycophenolate mofetil and liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Disease mechanisms are discussed and published evidence for drug efficacy is scrutinised for five important immune-mediated diseases: immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, myasthenia gravis, glomerulonephritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Future strategies for more refined manipulation of adverse immune responses are presented.
Journal of Small Animal Practice 02/2011; 52(2):70-85. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01024.x · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review and summarize the body of literature regarding human intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) therapy in veterinary medicine. Mechanism of action, usage in human medicine, adverse effects of therapy, implications for veterinary use, and administration recommendations are discussed.
Current human and veterinary peer-reviewed medical literature including original research articles and scientific reviews.
There are currently 6 labeled uses for hIVIG in human medicine, but preparations are used off-label to successfully treat multiple immune-mediated conditions. To maximize the potential of hIVIG use in animals and identify areas deficient in research, a review of the current literature is warranted.
Investigation of hIVIG therapy in veterinary patients has been limited to the subjects of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), Evan's syndrome, cutaneous disease, myasthenia gravis (MG), and sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARDS). Proponents of veterinary hIVIG use believe administration may reduce transfusion requirements and decrease hospitalization time.
Immunoglobulin (Ig) has not been shown to decrease transfusion requirements in IMHA patients, but shows great promise for treatment of ITP and dermatological diseases. Although serial transfusion of hIVIG is employed in human medicine, repeated transfusion is not recommended in animals due to risk of severe allergic reaction. Other potential adverse effects of transfusion include delayed hypersensitivity reactions, thromboembolism, renal failure, hypotension, and aseptic meningitis.
Patrick M Schlievert, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Aloysius J Klingelhutz
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