TAK1 activation for cytokine synthesis and proliferation of endometriotic cells.
ABSTRACT Endometriosis causes pelvic pain and infertility in women of reproductive age. We explored TNFalpha-induced specific signaling pathways and gene expressions in endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). Based on the data of the pathway specific cDNA array, we analyzed the role of TAK1, which is believed to work as a common mediator for NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. Using the NF-kappaB pathway array, we found that TNFalpha upregulated ICAM-3, IL-6, IL-8, TAK1, JNK2, RelA, and TLR4 expressions. TNFalpha augmented the phosphorylation of TAK1. By transfection of TAK1 siRNA, TNFalpha-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, as well as IL-6 or IL-8 expression, were repressed. TAK1 silencing in TNFalpha-pretreated ESCs caused a decrease in the proportion of cells in S-phase, and reduced TNFalpha-promoted BrdU incorporation. We provide the first evidence that TNFalpha and its downstream TAK1, which are key mediators for NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways, may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Conference Paper: A improved elastic scheduling algorithm based on feedback control theory[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Due to the variable of the tasks' attributes, the behavior of soft real-time systems is becoming increasingly unpredictable. Under this circumstance, the scheduling algorithms, which depend on the tasks' static attributes, can't provide usable and efficient resource allocation for those soft real-time systems. In this paper, we present an elastic scheduling algorithm for flexible workload firstly. Based on logging system resource utilization and the number of task instances executing and lost in a sampling period, this algorithm adjusts the number of task instances executing in the next sampling period to guarantee the tasks' basic QoS and improve the system resource utilization. Based on the above algorithm, we establish feedback control model for controlled system and controller, and use feedback control algorithm to improve the efficiency and stability for resource allocation. In this paper, we analyze the algorithms, and simulate them on NS2, and evaluate their performance.Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings. ICSP '04. 2004 7th International Conference on; 01/2004
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine whether nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is constitutively and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-dependently activated in endometriotic cells, whether trichostatin A (TSA) can suppress NF-kappaB activation and suppress TRAF2/6 and TAK1, and whether TSA and caffeic acid phenyl ester can suppress constitutive and H(2)O(2)-stimulated proliferation of endometriotic cells. Two endometriotic cell lines and an endometrial stromal cell line were used as an in vitro model. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis was used to determine NF-kappaB activation and possible suppression by TSA. Western blot analysis was used to determine whether TSA suppresses phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, phosphorylation of p65 in the cytoplasm and nuclear translocation, and the expression of TRAF2/6 and TAK1. NF-kappaB was constitutively activated in endometriotic cells, but only minimally in endometrial cells. TNFalpha stimulation activated NF-kappaB through induction of IkappaB phosphorylation, but the activation can be suppressed by TSA. TSA also attenuated constitutive and TNF-dependent p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in endometriotic cells. TRAF2, TRAF6 and TAK1 were constitutively activated and were unaffected by TSA treatment. NF-kappaB activation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis in endometriosis. Targeting NF-kappaB with histone deacetylase inhibitors or other compounds might hold promise as novel therapeutics for endometriosis.Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 01/2010; 70(1):23-33. DOI:10.1159/000279324 · 1.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. A literature search was conducted in PubMed to identify all relevant citations. Our findings highlight the important role of NF-κB in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. In vitro and in vivo studies show that NF-κB-mediated gene transcription promotes inflammation, invasion, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of endometriotic cells. Constitutive activation of NF-κB has been demonstrated in endometriotic lesions and peritoneal macrophages of endometriosis patients. Agents blocking NF-κB are effective inhibitors of endometriosis development and some drugs with known NF-κB inhibitory properties have proved efficient at reducing endometriosis-associated symptoms in women. Iron overload activates NF-κB in macrophages. NF-κB activation in macrophages and ectopic endometrial cells stimulates synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, generating a positive feedback loop in the NF-κB pathway and promoting endometriotic lesion establishment, maintenance and development. NF-κB transcriptional activity modulates key cell processes contributing to the initiation and progression of endometriosis. Because endometriosis is a multifactorial disease, inhibiting NF-κB appears to be a promising strategy for future therapies targeting different cell functions involved in endometriosis development, such as cell adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Upcoming research will elucidate these hypotheses.Fertility and sterility 02/2010; 94(6):1985-94. DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.01.013 · 4.30 Impact Factor