Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Center for Modeling Immunity to Enteric Pathogens, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24060, United States of America.
Dietary abscisic acid (ABA) has shown efficacy in ameliorating experimental IBD in mice through mechanisms requiring expression of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor γ (PPAR γ) in immune cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether PPAR γ expression in colonic epithelial cells is required for the anti-inflammatory actions of ABA.
Conditional knockout mice expressing a transgenic recombinase in intestinal epithelial cells under the control of a villin promoter (PPAR γ flfl; Villin Cre+ or VC+) with defective expression of PPAR γ in intestinal cells (IEC) and PPAR γ-expressing wild type (PPAR γ flfl; Villin Cre- or VC-) mice in a C57BL/6 background were fed diets with and without ABA (0.1 g/kg) for 35 days and challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 7 days. Clinical disease severity was assessed daily and colonic lesions on day 7 through macroscopic and histopathological examination. Immune cell phenotypes were examined systemically and at the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Epithelial gene expression was assayed in the colon.
Dietary ABA-supplementation prevented colitis, reduced disease severity, improved colonic histopathology, and upregulated epithelial lanthionine synthetase C-like protein 2 (LANCL2) expression in VC+ mice. Dietary ABA significantly increased the percentages of MLN CD4+IL-10+ T cells, and blood CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells and CD8+IL-10+ T cells.
Expression of PPAR γ in IECs was not required for the anti-inflammatory efficacy of ABA in IBD. LANCL2 in IECs and T cell-derived IL-10 may be implicated in the mechanism underlying ABA's immune modulatory activity in IBD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its discovery in the early 1960's, abscisic acid (ABA) has received considerable attention as an important phytohormone, and more recently, as a candidate medicinal in humans. In plants it has been shown to regulate important physiological processes such as response to drought stress, and dormancy. The discovery of ABA synthesis in animal cells has generated interest in the possible parallels between its role in plant and animal systems. The importance of this molecule has prompted the development of several methods for the chemical synthesis of ABA, which differ significantly from the biosynthesis of ABA in plants through the mevalonic acid pathway. ABA recognition in plants has been shown to occur at both the intra- and extracellularly but little is known about the perception of ABA by animal cells. A few ABA molecular targets have been identified in vitro (e.g., calcium signaling, G protein-coupled receptors) in both plant and animal systems. A unique finding in mammalian systems, however, is that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR gamma, is upregulated by ABA in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Comparison of the human PPAR gamma gene network with Arabidopsis ABA-related genes reveal important orthologs between these groups. Also, ABA can ameliorate the symptoms of type II diabetes, targeting PPAR gamma in a similar manner as the thiazolidinediones class of anti-diabetic drugs. The use of ABA in the treatment of type II diabetes, offers encouragement for further studies concerning the biomedical applications of ABA.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 12/2009; 17(5):467-78. · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone recently identified as a new endogenous pro-inflammatory hormone in human granulocytes. Here we report the functional activation of human monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells by ABA. Incubation of monocytes with ABA evokes an intracellular Ca2+ rise through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose, leading to NF-kappaB activation and consequent increase of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production and enhanced release of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and of metalloprotease-9, all events reportedly involved in atherogenesis. Moreover, monocytes release ABA when exposed to thrombin-activated platelets, a condition occurring at the injured vascular endothelium; monocyte-derived ABA behaves as an autocrine and paracrine pro-inflammatory hormone-stimulating monocyte migration and MCP-1 release, as well as vascular smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation. These results, and the presence of ABA in human arterial plaques at a 10-fold higher concentration compared with normal arterial tissue, identify ABA as a new signal molecule involved in the development of atherosclerosis and suggest a possible new target for anti-atherosclerotic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular targets for the protective actions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are unknown. We used a loss-of-function approach to investigate whether CLA ameliorated colitis through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma)-dependent mechanism.
The expression of PPAR gamma, delta, and their target genes in the colon of mice fed control or CLA-supplemented diets was assayed after a 7-day dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) challenge by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 activation was quantified in the colon. To determine the involvement of PPAR gamma in the mechanism of action of CLA directly, specific deletions of PPAR gamma in the colon were performed in mice by using the Cre-lox recombination system. Colonic PPAR gamma null mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a CLA-supplemented or a control diet for 42 days and challenged with 2.5% DSS. The therapeutic efficacy of CLA also was examined by using the CD4 + CD45RB hi transfer colitis model.
CLA induced PPAR gamma and delta, transcriptionally modulated PPAR gamma and delta-responsive gene clusters involved in lipid metabolism (uncoupling protein [UCP]1, UCP3, PPAR gamma coactivator 1alpha [PGC-1alpha], and CD36) and epithelial cell maturation (Gob-4 and Keratin 20). Additionally, CLA repressed tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression and NF-kappaB activation while inducing the immunoregulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1 ). Clinically, CLA ameliorated DSS- and CD4 + -induced colitis. Loss of the PPAR gamma gene in the colon abrogated the beneficial effects of CLA in DSS colitis.
Our studies provide molecular evidence in vivo, suggesting that CLA ameliorates colitis through a PPAR gamma-dependent mechanism.
J M Bordon, R Fernandez-Botran, T L Wiemken, P Peyrani, S M Uriarte, F W Arnold, L Rodriquez-Hernandez, M J Rane, R R Kelley, L E Binford, S Uppatla, R Cavallazzi, F Blasi, S Aliberti, M I Restrepo, S Fazeli, A Mathur, M Rahmani, K Ayesu, J Ramirez
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