Although negative emotions and psychiatric morbidity have often been found to increase incident coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, fewer studies have shown positive emotions to be protective against CAD; none have been performed in high-risk healthy populations, taking risk factors into account. Thus, we examined the effect of positive well-being on incident CAD in both a high-risk initially healthy population and a national probability sample. We screened healthy siblings of probands with documented early-onset CAD from 1985 to 2007 in the GeneSTAR (Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk) population and examined sociodemographic data, risk factors, and positive well-being using the General Well-Being Schedule. We further classified siblings into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk strata according to the Framingham risk score and followed them for 5 to 25 years. Siblings (n = 1,483) with greater baseline General Well-Being Schedule total scores were significantly less likely to develop CAD (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.79), independent of age, gender, race, and traditional risk factors. Protection was strongest in the high Framingham risk score stratum (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.90). The findings were replicated in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (n = 5,992; hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.93). In conclusion, positive well-being was associated with nearly a 1/3 reduction in CAD in a high-risk population with a positive family history, a nearly 50% reduction in incident CAD in the highest risk stratum in those with a positive family history, and a 13% reduction in incident CAD in a national probability sample, independent of the traditional CAD risk factors.
Cross-species comparisons of social environments, social behaviors, and their effects on health and longevity, Edited by Maxine Weinstein, Meredith Lane, 01/2014: chapter 9: pages 195-220; National Academies Press..
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The relationship between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is inconsistent across different CVD outcomes and for different PPWB constructs, such as positive affect. In addition, the relationship between PPWB and CVD as a composite measure is rarely assessed.
To assess whether positive affect is protective of incident CVD.
Positive affect was assessed in two cohorts between 1993 and 2001 in Rotterdam using relevant questions from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; in a sub-sample) in 6,349 non-demented, CVD-free, consenting adults, aged 55 + years. Composite CVD was defined as stroke, heart failure and coronary heart disease, which were continuously monitored through medical records until 1st April 2010.
There were 1,480 (23.3%) first time CVD events during follow-up (11.9 + 2.8SD years, 58,416 person-years). Positive affect was not associated with incident CVD (CES-D HR: 1.00 per point, 95%CI: 0.98-1.02; HADS HR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.92-1.05). Stratification by age or sex and assessment of separate CVD outcome did not change results.
In this large, population-based study, there was no association between positive affect and twelve-year incident CVD in older adults who were free of diagnosed CVD at baseline.
Preventive Medicine 02/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.01.032 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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