Effect of Positive Well-Being on Incidence of Symptomatic Coronary Artery Disease.
ABSTRACT Although negative emotions and psychiatric morbidity have often been found to increase incident coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, fewer studies have shown positive emotions to be protective against CAD; none have been performed in high-risk healthy populations, taking risk factors into account. Thus, we examined the effect of positive well-being on incident CAD in both a high-risk initially healthy population and a national probability sample. We screened healthy siblings of probands with documented early-onset CAD from 1985 to 2007 in the GeneSTAR (Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk) population and examined sociodemographic data, risk factors, and positive well-being using the General Well-Being Schedule. We further classified siblings into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk strata according to the Framingham risk score and followed them for 5 to 25 years. Siblings (n = 1,483) with greater baseline General Well-Being Schedule total scores were significantly less likely to develop CAD (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.79), independent of age, gender, race, and traditional risk factors. Protection was strongest in the high Framingham risk score stratum (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.90). The findings were replicated in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (n = 5,992; hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.93). In conclusion, positive well-being was associated with nearly a 1/3 reduction in CAD in a high-risk population with a positive family history, a nearly 50% reduction in incident CAD in the highest risk stratum in those with a positive family history, and a 13% reduction in incident CAD in a national probability sample, independent of the traditional CAD risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: Both laypersons and social scientists typically assume that psychological well-being or happiness is a response to objective circumstances or events. The present study contributes to recent literature showing that stable individual differences are more useful than life circumstances in predicting well-being. Responses to items from the General Well-being Schedule were examined for 4942 men and women surveyed in a follow-up of a national sample. Results showed substantial stability for well-being scales for total group and demographically defined subgroups, and stability coefficients were as high for those who had experienced changes in marital or employment status or state of residence as for those who had not. These findings point out the need for caution in interpreting well-being scores as indices of the quality of life, because well-being is strongly influenced by enduring characteristics of the individual.British Journal of Psychology 09/1987; 78 ( Pt 3):299-306. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the association of Joint National Committee (JNC-V) blood pressure and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) cholesterol categories with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, to incorporate them into coronary prediction algorithms, and to compare the discrimination properties of this approach with other noncategorical prediction functions. This work was designed as a prospective, single-center study in the setting of a community-based cohort. The patients were 2489 men and 2856 women 30 to 74 years old at baseline with 12 years of follow-up. During the 12 years of follow-up, a total of 383 men and 227 women developed CHD, which was significantly associated with categories of blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (all P<.001). Sex-specific prediction equations were formulated to predict CHD risk according to age, diabetes, smoking, JNC-V blood pressure categories, and NCEP total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol categories. The accuracy of this categorical approach was found to be comparable to CHD prediction when the continuous variables themselves were used. After adjustment for other factors, approximately 28% of CHD events in men and 29% in women were attributable to blood pressure levels that exceeded high normal (> or =130/85). The corresponding multivariable-adjusted attributable risk percent associated with elevated total cholesterol (> or =200 mg/dL) was 27% in men and 34% in women. Recommended guidelines of blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol effectively predict CHD risk in a middle-aged white population sample. A simple coronary disease prediction algorithm was developed using categorical variables, which allows physicians to predict multivariate CHD risk in patients without overt CHD.Circulation 06/1998; 97(18):1837-47. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Positive affect is believed to predict cardiovascular health independent of negative affect. We examined whether higher levels of positive affect are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a large prospective study with 10 years of follow-up. We examined the association between positive affect and cardiovascular events in 1739 adults (862 men and 877 women) in the 1995 Nova Scotia Health Survey. Trained nurses conducted Type A Structured Interviews, and coders rated the degree of outwardly displayed positive affect on a five-point scale. To test that positive affect predicts incident CHD when controlling for depressive symptoms and other negative affects, we used as covariates: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depressive symptoms Scale, the Cook Medley Hostility scale, and the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory. There were 145 (8.3%) acute non-fatal or fatal ischaemic heart disease events during the 14 916 person-years of observation. In a proportional hazards model controlling for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, positive affect predicted CHD (adjusted HR, 0.78; 95% CI 0.63-0.96 per point; P = 0.02), the covariate depressive symptoms continued to predict CHD as had been published previously in the same patients (HR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07 per point; P = 0.004) and hostility and anxiety did not (both P > 0.05). In this large, population-based study, increased positive affect was protective against 10-year incident CHD, suggesting that preventive strategies may be enhanced not only by reducing depressive symptoms but also by increasing positive affect.European Heart Journal 02/2010; 31(9):1065-70. · 14.72 Impact Factor