SHORT Syndrome with Partial Lipodystrophy Due to Impaired Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase Signaling.
ABSTRACT The phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates fundamental cellular processes such as metabolism, proliferation, and survival. A central component in this pathway is the p85α regulatory subunit, encoded by PIK3R1. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous PIK3R1 mutation (c.1945C>T [p.Arg649Trp]) in two unrelated families affected by partial lipodystrophy, low body mass index, short stature, progeroid face, and Rieger anomaly (SHORT syndrome). This mutation led to impaired interaction between p85α and IRS-1 and reduced AKT-mediated insulin signaling in fibroblasts from affected subjects and in reconstituted Pik3r1-knockout preadipocytes. Normal PI3K activity is critical for adipose differentiation and insulin signaling; the mutated PIK3R1 therefore provides a unique link among lipodystrophy, growth, and insulin signaling.
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ABSTRACT: SHORT syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition whose name is the acronym of short stature, hyperextensibility of joints, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and teething delay (MIM 269880). Additionally, the patients usually present a low birth weight and height, lipodystrophy, delayed bone age, hernias, low body mass index and a progeroid appearance.BMC Medical Genetics 05/2014; 15(1):51. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All the human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) recognized as such in the 1950s were Mendelian traits and, whether autosomal or X-linked, displayed recessive inheritance. The first autosomal dominant (AD) PID, hereditary angioedema, was recognized in 1963. However, since the first identification of autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR) and AD PID-causing genes in 1985 (ADA; severe combined immunodeficiency), 1986 (CYBB, chronic granulomatous disease) and 1989 (SERPING1; hereditary angioedema), respectively, the number of genetically defined AD PIDs has increased more rapidly than that of any other type of PID. AD PIDs now account for 61 of the 260 known conditions (23%). All known AR PIDs are caused by alleles with some loss-of-function (LOF). A single XR PID is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations (WASP-related neutropenia, 2001). In contrast, only 44 of 61 AD defects are caused by LOF alleles, which exert dominance by haploinsufficiency or negative dominance. Since 2003, up to 17 AD disorders of the third kind, due to GOF alleles, have been described. Remarkably, six of the 17 genes concerned also harbor monoallelic (STAT3), biallelic (C3, CFB, CARD11, PIK3R1) or both monoallelic and biallelic (STAT1) LOF alleles in patients with other clinical phenotypes. Most heterozygous GOF alleles result in auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, or both, with a wide range of immunological and clinical forms. Some also underlie infections and, fewer, allergies, by impairing or enhancing immunity to non-self. Malignancies are also rare. The enormous diversity of immunological and clinical phenotypes is thought provoking and mirrors the diversity and pleiotropy of the underlying genotypes. These experiments of nature provide a unique insight into the quantitative regulation of human immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Current opinion in immunology. 01/2015; 32C:90-105.
- Pediatric Diabetes 09/2014; 15 Suppl 20(S20):47-64. · 2.13 Impact Factor