Loss of Drp1 function alters OPA1 processing and changes mitochondrial membrane organization.
ABSTRACT RNAi mediated loss of Drp1 function changes mitochondrial morphology in cultured HeLa and HUVEC cells by shifting the balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion towards unopposed fusion. Over time, inhibition of Drp1 expression results in the formation of a highly branched mitochondrial network along with "bulge"-like structures. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are accompanied by a reduction in levels of Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and 2 (Mfn2) and a modified proteolytic processing of OPA1 isoforms, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, our data imply that bulge formation is driven by Mfn1 action along with particular proteolytic short-OPA1 (s-OPA1) variants: Loss of Mfn2 in the absence of Drp1 results in an increase of Mfn1 levels along with processed s-OPA1-isoforms, thereby enhancing continuous "fusion" and bulge formation. Moreover, bulge formation might reflect s-OPA1 mitochondrial membrane remodeling activity, resulting in the compartmentalization of cytochrome c deposits. The proteins Yme1L and PHB2 appeared not associated with the observed enhanced OPA1 proteolysis upon RNAi of Drp1, suggesting the existence of other OPA1 processing controlling proteins. Taken together, Drp1 appears to affect the activity of the mitochondrial fusion machinery by unbalancing the protein levels of mitofusins and OPA1.
Article: Atu027 prevents pulmonary metastasis in experimental and spontaneous mouse metastasis models.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Atu027, a novel RNA interference therapeutic, has been shown to inhibit lymph node metastasis in orthotopic prostate cancer mouse models. The aim of this study is to elucidate the pharmacologic activity of Atu027 in inhibiting hematogenous metastasis to the target organ lung in four different preclinical mouse models. Atu027 compared with vehicle or control small interfering RNA lipoplexes was tested in two experimental lung metastasis models (Lewis lung carcinoma, B16V) and spontaneous metastasis mouse models (MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231, mammary fat pad). Different dosing schedules (repeated low volume tail vein injections) were applied to obtain insight into effective Atu027 treatment. Primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were measured, and tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology. In vitro studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were carried out to provide an insight into molecular changes on depletion of PKN3, in support of efficacy results. Intravenous administration of Atu027 prevents pulmonary metastasis. In particular, formation of spontaneous lung metastasis was significantly inhibited in animals with large tumor grafts as well as in mice with resected primary mammary fat pad tumors. In addition, we provide evidence that an increase in VE-cadherin protein levels as a downstream result of PKN3 target gene inhibition may change endothelial function, resulting in reduced colonization and micrometastasis formation. Atu027 can be considered as a potent drug for preventing lung metastasis formation, which might be suitable for preventing hematogenous metastasis in addition to standard cancer therapy.Clinical Cancer Research 11/2010; 16(22):5469-80. · 7.74 Impact Factor