Article

Neuroimaging of response interference in twins concordant or discordant for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms.

Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.33). 03/2009; 164(1):16-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.01.056
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is to a large extent influenced by genetic factors, but environmental influences are considered important as well. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying primarily genetically and environmentally mediated ADHD, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare response interference in monozygotic twins highly concordant or discordant for attention problems (AP). AP scores were assessed longitudinally with the Child Behavior Check List attention problem scale (CBCL-AP). Response interference was measured during two executive function paradigms; a color-word Stroop and a flanker task. The neuroimaging results indicated that, across the entire sample, children with high CBCL-AP scores, relative to children with low CBCL-AP scores, showed decreased activation to response interference in dorsolateral prefrontal, parietal and temporal brain regions. Increased activation was noted in the premotor cortex and regions associated with visual selective attention processing, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms to maintain task performance. Specific comparisons of high and low scoring concordant twin pairs suggest that AP of genetic origin was characterized by decreased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the Stroop task and right parietal lobe during the flanker task. In contrast, comparison of twins from discordant monozygotic pairs, suggests that AP of environmental origin was characterized by decreased activation in left and right temporal lobe areas, but only during Stroop interference. The finding of distinct brain activation changes to response interference in inattention/hyperactivity of "genetic" versus "environmental" origin, indicates that genetic and environmental risk factors for attention/hyperactivity problems affect the brain in different ways.

1 Bookmark
 · 
92 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and relation to emotion regulation in ADHD has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of amygdala circuits and emotion regulation deficits in youth with ADHD. Bilateral amygdala iFC was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 63 children with ADHD, aged 6 to 13 years. First, we examined the relationship between amygdala IFC and parent ratings of emotional lability (EL) in children with ADHD. Second, we compared amygdala iFC across subgroups of children with ADHD and high EL (n = 18), ADHD and low EL (n = 20), and typically developing children (TDC), all with low EL (n = 19). Higher EL ratings were associated with greater positive iFC between the amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in youth with ADHD. EL scores were also negatively associated with iFC between bilateral amygdala and posterior insula/superior temporal gyrus. Patterns of amygdala-cortical iFC in ADHD participants with low EL were not different from the comparison group, and the effect sizes for these comparisons were smaller than those for the trend-level differences observed between the high-EL and TDC groups. In children with ADHD and a range of EL, deficits in emotion regulation were associated with altered amygdala-cortical iFC. When comparing groups that differed on ADHD status but not EL, differences in amygdala iFC were small and nonsignificant, highlighting the specificity of this finding to emotional deficits, independent of other ADHD symptoms.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 03/2014; 53(3):351-361.e1. · 6.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imaging genetics examines genetic influences on brain structure and function. This preliminary study tested a fundamental assumption of that approach by estimating the heritability of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during antisaccades, a measure of response inhibition impaired in different psychiatric conditions. One hundred thirty-two healthy same-sex reared-together twins (90 monozygotic (MZ; 32 male) and 42 dizygotic (DZ; 24 male)) performed antisaccades in the laboratory. Of these, 96 twins (60 MZ, 28 male; 36 DZ, 22 male) subsequently underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during antisaccades. Variation in antisaccade direction errors in the laboratory showed significant heritability (47%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 22-65). In fMRI, the contrast of antisaccades with prosaccades yielded BOLD signal in fronto-parietal-subcortical networks. Twin modelling provided tentative evidence of significant heritability (50%, 95% CI: 18-72) of BOLD in the left thalamus only. However, due to the limited power to detect heritability in this study, replications in larger samples are needed.
    Biological Psychology 08/2014; · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurodevelopmental disorders affect a substantial minority of the general population. Their origins are still largely unknown, but a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors causing disturbances of the central nervous system's maturation and a variety of higher cognitive skills is presumed. Only limited research of rather small sample size and narrow scope has been conducted in neurodevelopmental disorders using a twin-differences design. The Roots of Autism and ADHD Twin Study in Sweden (RATSS) is an ongoing project targeting monozygotic twins discordant for categorical or dimensional autistic and inattentive/hyperactive-impulsive phenotypes as well as other neurodevelopmental disorders, and typically developing twin controls. Included pairs are 9 years of age or older, and comprehensively assessed for psychopathology, medical history, neuropsychology, and dysmorphology, as well as structural, functional, and molecular brain imaging. Specimens are collected for induced pluripotent (iPS) and neuroepithelial stem cells, genetic, gut bacteria, protein-/monoamine, and electron microscopy analyses. RATSS's objective is to generate a launch pad for novel surveys to understand the complexity of genotype-environment-phenotype interactions in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By October 2013, RATSS had collected data from 55 twin pairs, among them 10 monozygotic pairs discordant for autism spectrum disorder, seven for ADHD, and four for other neurodevelopmental disorders. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, collected pairs' characteristics, as well as ongoing and planned analyses in RATSS. Potential gains of the study comprise the identification of environmentally mediated biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development, translational modeling, and new leads for prevention of incapacitating outcomes.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 04/2014; · 1.92 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
29 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014