Prevalence of residual excessive sleepiness in CPAP-treated sleep apnoea patients: The French multicentre study
HP2 Laboratory (Hypoxia Pathophysiology), INSERM ERI 0017, EA 3745 Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France.European Respiratory Journal (Impact Factor: 7.64). 05/2009; 33(5):1062-7. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00016808
The percentage of compliant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated apnoeic patients that continue to experience residual excessive sleepiness (RES) is unknown. RES was defined by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score of >or=11. In total, 502 patients from 37 French sleep centres using CPAP >3 h night(-1) attending their 1-yr follow-up visit were eligible. ESS and polysomnographic data as well as symptoms, quality of life, depression scores and objective CPAP compliance at 1 yr were collected. Overall, 60 patients remained sleepy on CPAP (ESS 14.3+/-2.5) leading to a prevalence rate of RES of 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-14.8). After having excluded associated restless leg syndrome, major depressive disorder and narcolepsy as confounding causes, the final prevalence rate of RES was 6.0% (95% CI 3.9-8.01). Patients with RES were younger and more sleepy at diagnosis. The relative risk of having RES was 5.3 (95% CI 1.6-22.1), when ESS before treatment was >or=11. Scores of emotional and energy Nottingham Health Profile domains were two times worse in patients with RES. As 230,000 obstructive sleep apnoea patients are currently treated in France by continuous positive airway pressure, more than 13,800 of them might suffer from residual excessive sleepiness.
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ABSTRACT: A 35 GHz high resolution helicopter altimeter using the FMCW principle is described, which gives precise height information especially in the region close to ground. The system uses full digital data processing including the FM sweep linearisation and a near reflection cancellation. Inflight tests confirm the ability of the system to effectively support helicopter autorotation landings.Microwave Conference, 1987. 17th European; 10/1987
- European Respiratory Journal 11/2009; 34(5):1209. DOI:10.1183/09031936.00099609 · 7.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The significance of residual excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) on cardiovascular markers in patients with adequately treated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, and interleukin [IL]-6) in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-compliant patients with residual EDS compared with CPAP-compliant patients without residual EDS. FMD of the brachial artery was measured by ultrasound in 12 CPAP-compliant patients with OSA who had residual EDS and 12 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched CPAP-compliant patients with OSA who did not have residual EDS on week 8 after initiation of CPAP. Twelve otherwise-healthy subjects without sleep disordered breathing were used as control subjects. Serum concentrations of CRP, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Baseline FMD was comparable among CPAP-compliant patients with residual EDS (7.2 +/- 2.3), CPAP-compliant patients without residual EDS (8.6 +/- 2.1), and control subjects (7.7 +/- 1.4) (p = 0.37). The concentrations of CRP, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were also not significantly different between subjects with CPAP-compliant residual EDS and those without residual EDS (p = 0.44, p = 0.37, and p = 0.42; respectively). Residual EDS in patients with adequately treated OSA may not represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 06/2010; 6(3):251-5. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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