Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-analysis of Randomized and Observational Studies
ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controversy exists regarding whether an off-pump technique can reduce post-CABG renal injury.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Adult patients undergoing CABG.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Renal Library, and Google Scholar were searched in May 2008 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing off-pump CABG (OPCAB) with conventional CABG (CAB) for renal outcomes. Studies involving patients on long-term renal replacement therapy (RRT) were excluded.
Primary outcomes were overall AKI and AKI requiring RRT.
22 studies (6 RCTs and 16 observational studies) comprising 27,806 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled effect from both study cohorts showed a significant reduction in overall AKI (odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.76; P for effect < 0.001; I(2) = 67%; P for heterogeneity < 0.001) and AKI requiring RRT (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.71; P for effect < 0.001; I(2) = 0%; P for heterogeneity = 0.5) in the OPCAB group compared with the CAB group. In RCTs, overall AKI was significantly reduced in the OPCAB group (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.54); however, no statistically significant difference was noted in AKI requiring RRT (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.59). In the observational cohort, both overall AKI (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.81) and AKI requiring RRT (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.73) were significantly less in the OPCAB group. RCTs were noted to be underpowered and biased toward recruiting low-risk patients. Sensitivity analysis restricted to good-quality studies showed a significant reduction in AKI.
Lack of uniform AKI definition in the included studies, heterogeneity for overall AKI outcome.
Analysis of the current evidence suggests a reduction in AKI using the OPCAB technique; however, studies lack consistency in defining AKI. Available RCTs are underpowered to detect a difference in AKI requiring RRT; evidence from observational studies suggests a reduction in RRT requirement. Future studies should apply a standard definition of AKI and target a high-risk population.
SourceAvailable from: Mahdi Najafi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serum creatinine is still the most important determinant in the assessment of perioperative renal function and in the prediction of adverse outcome in cardiac surgery. Many biomarkers have been studied to date; still, there is no surrogate for serum creatinine measurement in clinical practice because it is feasible and inexpensive. High levels of serum creatinine and its equivalents have been the most important preoperative risk factor for postoperative renal injury. Moreover, creatinine is the mainstay in predicting risk models and risk factor reduction has enhanced its importance in outcome pre-diction. The future perspective is the development of new definitions and novel tools for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury largely based on serum creati-nine and a panel of novel biomarkers. Core tip: This manuscript aims to review the latest achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). Despite much progress in recent years, especially in the development of novel biomark-ers, serum creatinine still plays the major role. Creati-nine is not only the mainstay of definition, diagnosis and prediction of AKI, but also the most important pre-dictor of outcome after cardiac surgery, including mor-tality and morbidity as well as hospital length of stay. Najafi M. Serum creatinine role in predicting outcome after cardiac surgery beyond acute kidney injury. World J CardiolWorld Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 09/2014; 6(9):1006-21. DOI:10.4330/wjc.v6.i9.1006 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Justificativa e objetivos Avaliar os efeitos do pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto, mediante breve isquemia de membro posterior unilateral, em combinação com dexmedetomidina em lesão de isquemia-reperfusão renal por meio de histopatologia e imunorreatividade da caspase-3 ativa em ratos. Métodos Foram divididos em quatro grupos 28 ratos machos albinos Wistar. Grupo I (Sham [cirurgia controle], n = 7): laparotomia e dissecção do pedículo renal foram feitas em 65 minutos de anestesia e os ratos foram observados sob anestesia por 130 minutos. Grupo II (isquemia-reperfusão, n = 7): no 65° minuto de anestesia, os pedículos renais bilaterais foram pinçados; após 60 minutos de isquemia, foi feita reperfusão de 24 horas. Grupo III (isquemia-reperfusão + dexmedetomidina, n = 7): no quinto minuto de reperfusão, dexmedetomidina (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) foi administrada ao grupo com isquemia-reperfusão. A reperfusão durou 24 horas. Grupo IV (isquemia-reperfusão + pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto + dexmedetomidina, n = 7): após a laparotomia, três ciclos de pré-condicionamento isquêmico (10 minutos de isquemia e 10 minutos de reperfusão) foram aplicados no membro posterior esquerdo e depois de cinco minutos ao grupo III. Resultados Os escores de lesão histopatológica e imunorreatividade da caspase-3 ativa foram significativamente menores no grupo Sham em comparação com os outros. Os escores de lesão histopatológica dos grupos III e IV foram significativamente menores do que os do II (p = 0,03 e p = 0,05). A imunorreatividade da caspase-3 foi significativamente menor no grupo IV do que no II (p = 0,01) e não houve diferença significante entre os grupos II e III (p = 0,06). Conclusões O condicionamento farmacológico com dexmedetomidina e o pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto em combinação com dexmedetomidina diminuem de modo significante a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão renal histomorfologicamente. O uso combinado dos dois métodos previne a apoptose via caspase-3 ativa.12/2014; 64(6):382–390. DOI:10.1016/j.bjane.2014.01.002
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication of cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The pathogenesis is poorly understood and the study of AKI in rodent models has not led to improvements in clinical outcomes. We sought to determine the changes in renal medullary gene expression in a novel and clinically relevant porcine model of CPB-induced AKI.BMC Genomics 10/2014; 15(1):916. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-916 · 4.04 Impact Factor