Acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controversy exists regarding whether an off-pump technique can reduce post-CABG renal injury.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Adult patients undergoing CABG.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Renal Library, and Google Scholar were searched in May 2008 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing off-pump CABG (OPCAB) with conventional CABG (CAB) for renal outcomes. Studies involving patients on long-term renal replacement therapy (RRT) were excluded.
Primary outcomes were overall AKI and AKI requiring RRT.
22 studies (6 RCTs and 16 observational studies) comprising 27,806 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled effect from both study cohorts showed a significant reduction in overall AKI (odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.76; P for effect < 0.001; I(2) = 67%; P for heterogeneity < 0.001) and AKI requiring RRT (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.71; P for effect < 0.001; I(2) = 0%; P for heterogeneity = 0.5) in the OPCAB group compared with the CAB group. In RCTs, overall AKI was significantly reduced in the OPCAB group (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.54); however, no statistically significant difference was noted in AKI requiring RRT (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.59). In the observational cohort, both overall AKI (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.81) and AKI requiring RRT (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.73) were significantly less in the OPCAB group. RCTs were noted to be underpowered and biased toward recruiting low-risk patients. Sensitivity analysis restricted to good-quality studies showed a significant reduction in AKI.
Lack of uniform AKI definition in the included studies, heterogeneity for overall AKI outcome.
Analysis of the current evidence suggests a reduction in AKI using the OPCAB technique; however, studies lack consistency in defining AKI. Available RCTs are underpowered to detect a difference in AKI requiring RRT; evidence from observational studies suggests a reduction in RRT requirement. Future studies should apply a standard definition of AKI and target a high-risk population.
"Moreover, advanced age is an important predictor of postoperative renal dysfunction after CABG . Although a recent propensity-based study on consistent number of patients confirmed these findings , a meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials and 16 observational studies failed to show strong benefit in the elderly population regarding OPCAB and renal failure . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the increase in average life expectancy and the higher incidence of cardiovascular disease with advancing age, more elderly patients present for cardiac surgery nowadays. Advances in pre- and postoperative care have led to the possibility that an increasing number of elderly patients can be operated on safely and with a satisfactory outcome. Currently, coronary artery bypass surgery, aortic and mitral valve surgery, and major surgery of the aorta are performed in elderly patients. The data available show that most cardiac surgical procedures can be performed in elderly patients with a satisfactory outcome. Nevertheless, the risk for these patients is only acceptable in the absence of comorbidities. In particular, renal dysfunction, cerebrovascular disease, and poor clinical state are associated with a worse outcome in elderly patients. Careful patient selection, flawless surgery, meticulous hemostasis, perfect anesthesia, and adequate myocardial protection are basic requirements for the success of cardiac surgery in elderly patients. The care of elderly cardiac surgical patients can be improved only through the strict collaboration of geriatricians, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons, in order to obtain a tailored treatment for each individual patient.
"renal artery stenosis and renal surgery , . Furthermore, renal IRI is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with delayed graft function after transplantation, renal damage in cardiac and aortic surgery, and shock –. In animal models, both LIPC and RIPC have been shown to be effective tools to protect the kidney (e.g. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a potent renoprotective strategy which has not yet been translated successfully into clinical practice, in spite of promising results in animal studies. We performed a unique systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies to identify factors modifying IPC efficacy in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), in order to enhance the design of future (clinical) studies. An electronic literature search for animal studies on IPC in renal IRI yielded fifty-eight studies which met our inclusion criteria. We extracted data for serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and histological renal damage, as well as study quality indicators. Meta-analysis showed that IPC reduces serum creatinine (SMD 1.54 [95%CI 1.16, 1.93]), blood urea nitrogen (SMD 1.42 [95% CI 0.97, 1.87]) and histological renal damage (SMD 1.12 [95% CI 0.89, 1.35]) after IRI as compared to controls. Factors influencing IPC efficacy were the window of protection (<24 h = early vs. ≥ 24 h = late) and animal species (rat vs. mouse). No difference in efficacy between local and remote IPC was observed. In conclusion, our findings show that IPC effectively reduces renal damage after IRI, with higher efficacy in the late window of protection. However, there is a large gap in study data concerning the optimal window of protection, and IPC efficacy may differ per animal species. Moreover, current clinical trials on RIPC may not be optimally designed, and our findings identify a need for further standardization of animal experiments.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e32296. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032296 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Most sensitive to IRI are organs with a high energy demand and an intricate mircovascular network, such as the kidney. Renal IRI frequently complicates shock, cardiac and aortic surgery, delays graft function after transplantation, and has prognostic significance , . Furthermore, renal IRI is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and is commonly observed in e.g. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) frequently complicates shock, renal transplantation and cardiac and aortic surgery, and has prognostic significance. The translocation of phosphatidylserines to cell surfaces is an important pro-inflammatory signal for cell-stress after IRI. We hypothesized that shielding of exposed phosphatidylserines by the annexin A5 (ANXA5) homodimer Diannexin protects against renal IRI. Protective effects of Diannexin on the kidney were studied in a mouse model of mild renal IRI. Diannexin treatment before renal IRI decreased proximal tubule damage and leukocyte influx, decreased transcription and expression of renal injury markers Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin and Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and improved renal function. A mouse model of ischemic hind limb exercise was used to assess Diannexin biodistribution and targeting. When comparing its biodistribution and elimination to ANXA5, Diannexin was found to have a distinct distribution pattern and longer blood half-life. Diannexin targeted specifically to the ischemic muscle and its affinity exceeded that of ANXA5. Targeting of both proteins was inhibited by pre-treatment with unlabeled ANXA5, suggesting that Diannexin targets specifically to ischemic tissues via phosphatidylserine-binding. This study emphasizes the importance of phosphatidylserine translocation in the pathophysiology of IRI. We show for the first time that Diannexin protects against renal IRI, making it a promising therapeutic tool to prevent IRI in a clinical setting. Our results indicate that Diannexin is a potential new imaging agent for the study of phosphatidylserine-exposing organs in vivo.
PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e24276. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0024276 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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