MUC1 in human milk blocks transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from dendritic cells to T cells.
ABSTRACT Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs frequently via breast-feeding. HIV-1 targets DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal areas that allow efficient transmission of the virus to T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelial mucin MUC1, abundant in milk, efficiently bound to DC-SIGN on DC. The O-linked glycans within the mucin domain contained Lewis X structures, that were specifically recognized by the receptor. Interestingly, MUC1 prevented DC-SIGN-mediated transmission of HIV-1 from DCs to CD4+ T cells. We hypothesize that repetitive units of Lewis X, within the mucin domain, play an important role in inhibiting transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child.
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ABSTRACT: Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogen binding to host receptors and their consumption by infants is associated with reduced risk of disease. Salmonella infection is more frequent among infants than among the general population, but the incidence is lower in breast-fed babies, suggesting that human milk could contain components that inhibit Salmonella. This study aimed to test whether human milk per se inhibits Salmonella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and, if so, to identify the milk components responsible for inhibition. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 (SL1344) invasion of FHs 74 Int and Caco-2 cells were the models of human intestinal epithelium infection. Internalization of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-labeled SL1344 into intestinal cells was measured by flow cytometry to quantify infection. Human milk and its fractions inhibited infection; the inhibitory activity localized to the high molecular weight glycans. Mucin 1 and mucin 4 were isolated to homogeneity. At 150 μg/L, a typical concentration in milk, human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibited SL1344 invasion of both target cell types. These mucins inhibited SL1344 invasion of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, mucins may prove useful as a basis for developing novel oral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that inhibit infant diseases caused by Salmonella and related pathogens.Journal of Nutrition 06/2012; 142(8):1504-9. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), exposure to HIV from breast milk has relegated EBF to an option only when formula feeding is not affordable, feasible, safe, and sustainable. Mixed feeding remains the norm in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated whether the duration of EBF was associated with mortality and HIV infection in children followed to ≤5 y of age. Methods: A total of 690 mother-infant pairs from the Trial of Vitamins with information on infant feeding, HIV status, and at least one visit in the first year were included in the analysis. The duration of EBF was defined in months as a time-varying covariate at each follow-up visit. Associations of the duration of EBF with mortality, HIV infection, and HIV infection or death were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A 1-mo increase in EBF was associated with a 49% reduction in early infant mortality in the first 6 mo of life (RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.93) and a nonsignificant 15% reduction in risk of HIV infection or death (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.01; P = 0.07) over the first 5 y of life. EBF was not associated with HIV infection (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.15). Longer EBF by HIV-positive mothers was associated with reduced mortality in the first 6 mo of life without increased HIV infection, which makes EBF the best option for women who cannot sustain exclusive formula feeding. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00197743.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2012; 96(5):1071-8. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CA-125 (coelomic epithelium-related antigen) forms the extracellular portion of transmembrane mucin 16 (MUC16). It is shed after proteolytic degradation. Due to structural heterogeneity, CA-125 ligand capacity and biological roles are not yet understood. In this study, we assessed CA-125 as a ligand for dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is a C-type lectin showing specificity for mannosylated and fucosylated structures. It plays a role as a pattern recognition molecule for viral and bacterial glycans or as an adhesion receptor. We probed a human DC-SIGN-Fc chimera with CA-125 of fetal or cancer origin using solid- or fluid-phase binding and inhibition assays. The results showed that DC-SIGN binds to CA-125 of fetal origin and that this interaction is carbohydrate-dependent. By contrast, cancerderived CA-125 displayed negligible binding. Inhibition assays indicated differences in the potency of CA-125 to interfere with DC-SIGN binding to pathogen-related glycoconjugates, such as mannan and Helicobacter pylori antigens. The differences in ligand properties between CA-125 of fetal and cancer origin may be due to specificities of glycosylation. This might influence various functions of dendritic cells based on their subset diversity and maturation-related functional capacity.Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 04/2014; · 1.95 Impact Factor