Frequency of vacA, cagA and babA2 virulence markers in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients with chronic gastritis

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, Estado de Mexico, Mexico.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials (Impact Factor: 1.51). 04/2009; 8:14. DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-8-14
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Three major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vacuolating toxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated gene product (CagA) and the adhesion protein BabA2. Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to establish the H. pylori and vacA, cagA and babA2 gene status in 238 adult patients, from a marginal urban area of Mexico, with chronic gastritis.
H. pylori was identified in cultures of gastric biopsies by nested PCR. vacA and cagA genes were detected by multiplex PCR, whereas babA2 gene was identified by conventional PCR.
H. pylori-positive biopsies were 143 (60.1%). All H. pylori strains were vacA+; 39.2% were cagA+; 13.3% were cagA+ babA2+ and 8.4% were babA2+. Mexican strains examined possessed the vacA s1, m1 (43.4%), s1, m2 (24.5%), s2, m1 (20.3%) and s2, m2 (11.9%) genotypes.
These results show that the Mexican patients suffering chronic gastritis we have studied had a high incidence of infection by H. pylori. Forty four percent (63/143) of the H. pylori strains analyzed in this work may be considered as highly virulent since they possessed two or three of the virulence markers analyzed: vacA s1 cagA babA2 (9.8%, 14/143), vacA s1 babA2 (4.9%, 7/143), and vacA s1 cagA (29.4%, 42/143). However, a statistically significant correlation was not observed between vacAs1, cagA and babA2 virulence markers (chi2 test; P > 0.05).

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    ABSTRACT: Genotypic differences in Helicobacter pylori play an important role in infection. We characterized the diversity of the cagA, cagE, babA2, and vacA genes in H. pylori strains isolated from pediatric patients and the relationship between these genes and clinical disease. Additionally, we employed the Neighbor-net algorithm to predict the behavior of the genotypes of the strains isolated from patients. Of 93 patients analyzed, 32 were positive for infection. A total of 160 H. pylori strains (five isolates per positive patient) were analyzed. A total of 91% and 83% of strains possessed the cagA and cagE genes, respectively. For the vacA gene, 84% of strains possessed the s1 allele, 15% the s2 allele, 81% the m1 allele and 13.8% the m2 allele. The babA2 gene was present in 79% of strains. Infection with H. pylori strains with the vacA (s1m1) genotype was associated with risk of esophagitis and gastritis (p = 0.0001). The combination of cagA and vacA (s1m1) was significantly associated with abdominal pain (p = 0.002); however, EPIYA type was not significantly associated with abdominal pain. A total of 16 different genotypes were identified; the most common genotype was vacAs1m1cagA+cagE+babA2+ (47.5%). A total of 84% of pediatric patients were infected by at least two and up to five different genotypes. The network recovered two genotype groups (A: strains with vacAs1 and B: strains with vacAs2). The presence of multiple paths in the network suggests that reticulate events, such as recombination or reinfection, have contributed to the observed genotypic diversity.
    Infection Genetics and Evolution 11/2014; 29. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.11.002 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Helicobacter pylori chronic infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA)-positive H. pylori strains increase the risk of gastric pathology. The carcinogenic potential of CagA is linked to its polymorphic EPIYA motif variants. The goals of this study were to investigate the frequency of cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori in Mexican patients with gastric pathologies and to assess the association of cagA EPIYA motif patterns with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Methods A total of 499 patients were studied; of these, 402 had chronic gastritis, 77 had peptic ulcer, and 20 had gastric cancer. H. pylori DNA, cagA, and the EPIYA motifs were detected in total DNA from gastric biopsies by PCR. The type and number of EPIYA segments were determined by the electrophoretic patterns. To confirm the PCR results, 20 amplicons of the cagA 3′ variable region were sequenced, and analyzed in silico, and the amino acid sequence was predicted with MEGA software, version 5. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the associations between the EPIYA motif type and gastric pathology and between the number of EPIYA-C segments and peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Results H. pylori DNA was found in 287 (57.5%) of the 499 patients, and 214 (74%) of these patients were cagA-positive. The frequency of cagA-positive H. pylori was 74.6% (164/220) in chronic gastritis patients, 73.6% (39/53) in peptic ulcer patients, and 78.6% (11/14) in gastric cancer patients. The EPIYA-ABC pattern was more frequently observed in chronic gastritis patients (79.3%, 130/164), while the EPIYA-ABCC sequence was more frequently observed in peptic ulcer (64.1%, 25/39) and gastric cancer patients (54.5%, 6/11). However, the risks of peptic ulcer (OR = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.3–15.1; p < 0.001) and gastric cancer (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.5–22.1) were significantly increased in individuals who harbored the EPIYA-ABCC cagA gene pattern. Conclusions cagA-positive H. pylori is highly prevalent in southern Mexico, and all CagA variants were of the western type. The cagA alleles that code for EPIYA-ABCC motif patterns are associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer.
    BMC Gastroenterology 12/2014; 14(1):2. DOI:10.1186/s12876-014-0223-9 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n = 169), chronic gastritis (GIs), gastric ulcer (GU), and gastric cancer (GC) were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84%) cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93%) compared with GIs (72%) and GU (84%). The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40%) and GU (36%), vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%), vacAs1bm1 (14%) and vacAs1bm2 (8%) in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%), while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2%) and GU (3%) and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%), as compared to GIs (41%) and GU (20%). The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23%) than in GU (22%) and GIs (145) patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China.
    05/2014; DOI:10.1155/2014/142980

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