Full sequencing of TP53 identifies identical mutations within in situ and invasive components in breast cancer suggesting clonal evolution.
ABSTRACT In breast cancer, previous studies have suggested that somatic TP53 mutations are likely to be an early event. However, there are controversies regarding the cellular origin and linear course of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate tumor evolution in breast cancer by analyzing TP53 mutation status in tumors from various stages of the disease. The entire coding sequence of TP53 was sequenced in a cohort of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), pure invasive cancer (≤15mm) and mixed lesions (i.e. invasive cancer with an in situ component). Of 118 tumor samples, 19 were found to harbor a TP53 mutation; 5 (15.6%) of the pure DCIS, 4 (10.5%) of the pure invasive cancers and 10 (20.8%) of the mixed lesions. In the mixed lesions, both the invasive and the DCIS components showed the same mutation in all 5 cases where the two components were successfully microdissected. Presence of the same mutation in both DCIS and invasive components from the same tumor indicates same cellular origin. The role of mutant TP53 in the progression of breast cancer is less clear and may vary between subtypes.
Article: Frequent aberrant DNA methylation of ABCB1, FOXC1, PPP2R2B and PTEN in ductal carcinoma in situ and early invasive breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive lesion of the breast that is frequently detected by mammography and subsequently removed by surgery. However, it is estimated that about half of the detected lesions would never have progressed into invasive cancer. Identifying DCIS and invasive cancer specific epigenetic lesions and understanding how these epigenetic changes are involved in triggering tumour progression is important for a better understanding of which lesions are at risk of becoming invasive. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of ABCB1, CDKN2A/p16INK4a, ESR1, FOXC1, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, MLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN and RASSF1A was performed by pyrosequencing in a series of 27 pure DCIS, 28 small invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), 34 IDCs with a DCIS component and 5 normal breast tissue samples. FOXC1, ABCB1, PPP2R2B and PTEN were analyzed in 23 additional normal breast tissue samples. Real-Time PCR expression analysis was performed for FOXC1. Aberrant DNA methylation was observed in all three diagnosis groups for the following genes: ABCB1, FOXC1, GSTP1, MGMT, MLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN and RASSF1A. For most of these genes, methylation was already present at the DCIS level with the same frequency as within IDCs. For FOXC1 significant differences in methylation levels were observed between normal breast tissue and invasive tumours (P < 0.001). The average DNA methylation levels were significantly higher in the pure IDCs and IDCs with DCIS compared to pure DCIS (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). Real-time PCR analysis of FOXC1 expression from 25 DCIS, 23 IDCs and 28 normal tissue samples showed lower gene expression levels of FOXC1 in both methylated and unmethylated tumours compared to normal tissue (P < 0.001). DNA methylation levels of FOXC1, GSTP1, ABCB1 and RASSF1A were higher in oestrogen receptor (ER) positive vs. ER negative tumours; whereas methylation levels of FOXC1, ABCB1, PPP2R2B and PTEN were lower in tumours with a TP53 mutation. Quantitative methylation analysis identified ABCB1, FOXC1, PPP2R2B and PTEN as novel genes to be methylated in DCIS. In particular, FOXC1 showed a significant increase in the methylation frequency in invasive tumours. Low FOXC1 gene expression in both methylated and unmethylated DCIS and IDCs indicates that the loss of its expression is an early event during breast cancer progression.Breast cancer research: BCR 01/2010; 12(1):R3. · 5.24 Impact Factor