Gender differences in the clinical manifestation of obstructive sleep apnea.
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been historically described as a disease primarily of men. However, it is now widely recognized that OSA in women is not as rare as was originally believed. The alarming degree to which OSA is clinically underdiagnosed in women raises the critical concern that women manifest OSA differently. The purpose of this review is to examine the issue of clinically significant gender differences in OSA disease manifestation, which pose unique challenges to diagnosis and management. Within this review, current findings regarding gender differences in OSA polysomnographic features and demographic factors, symptom presentation, functional status, comorbidities, health care utilization, and therapeutic management have been reviewed. Further research in this field is proposed to examine the impact of gender on functional status in individuals with OSA, and the potential gender differences in therapeutic management, particularly the response to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Additional studies describing the clinical manifestations in men and women at different levels of OSA severity may substantially contribute to the ability to identify and treat OSA in women across a wide spectrum of disease severity.
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ABSTRACT: Aim of the work To assess obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as one of the common primary sleep disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and study its correlation to disease activity and pulmonary function tests. Patients and methods This study included 30 female patients with RA who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology/European league against rheumatism classification criteria. All the patients were subjected to full medical history, thorough clinical examination with evaluation of the disease activity using disease activity score-28 (DAS28), laboratory assessment of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC) and one night polysomnography at the sleep laboratory. Results Polysomnographic data revealed OSA in 14 RA patients (46.7%). Patients with OSA showed longer disease duration (7.0 ± 1.94 years), higher BMI (30.8 ± 2.48), hsCRP level (6.7 ± 0.6 mg/L) and DAS28 (4.9 ± 1.85) than patients with no OSA (4.0 ± 1.72 years, 20.3 ± 1.55, 4.9 ± 0.3 mg/L and 3.7 ± 1.28 respectively). There was non-significant difference between both groups regarding the PFTs (p > 0.05). The study showed a significant correlation between AHI (apnea-hypopnea index) and BMI, hsCRP and DAS28 (r = 0.45, 0.43 and 0.51, respectively) (p < 0.05). No significant correlation was detected between AHI and PFTs. Conclusion Obstructive sleep apnea is commonly associated with RA patients; these findings possibly suggest common underlying pathological mechanisms which may be linked to chronic inflammation. Co-existence of OSA in RA patients may influence the disease activity and the level of circulating inflammatory markers. Considering diagnosis and treatment of this sleep disorder in RA patients may help in improved clinical care, better prognosis and avoid rheumatoid-associated morbidities.The Egyptian Rheumatologist. 10/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Clinical guidelines for the care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) recommend evaluation of daytime sleepiness but do not specify evaluation of fatigue. We studied how subjects with and without OSA experience fatigue and sleepiness, examining the role of gender and race. Consecutive subjects entering our heart health registry completed validated questionnaires including Berlin Questionnaire for OSA, Fatigue Scale, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Data analysis was performed only with Whites and Blacks as there were too few subjects of other races for comparison. Of 384 consecutive subjects, including 218 women (57 %), there were 230 Whites (60 %) and 154 Blacks (40 %), with average age of 55.9 ± 12.8 years. Berlin Questionnaires identified 221 subjects (58 %) as having high likelihood for OSA. Fatigue was much more common in women (75 %) than in men (46 %) with OSA (p < 0.001), while frequency of fatigue was similar in women (30 %) and men (29 %) without OSA (p = 0.86). In multivariate analysis, men with OSA were sleepier than women; Black men with OSA had higher Epworth scores (mean ± SD, 12.8 ± 5.2) compared to White men (10.6 ± 5.3), White women (10.0 ± 4.5), and Black women (10.5 ± 5.2), p = 0.05. These gender differences were not related to the effects of age, body mass index, perceived stress, sleep duration, or thyroid function. Women report fatigue more commonly with OSA than men. Men experience sleepiness more commonly with OSA than women. The findings suggest that evaluation of sleep disorders must include an assessment of fatigue in addition to sleepiness to capture the experience of women.Sleep And Breathing 03/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the association of race ethnicity and the relationship of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence with functional outcomes of sleep in American samples with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This retrospective study examines whether race ethnicity moderates the relationship between CPAP adherence and functional outcomes of sleep in OSAS.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 09/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor