Effect of different adhesive systems and laser treatment on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel.

Hacettepe University, School of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Sihhiye 06100, Ankara, Turkey.
Journal of dentistry (Impact Factor: 3.2). 04/2009; 37(7):527-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2009.03.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study determined the shear bond strength of a nanohybrid composite resin to bleached enamel immediately or 15 days later using different adhesive systems and laser application.
One hundred and forty enamel specimens were prepared from human molar teeth and bleached either with 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) or 30% CP according to the manufacturer's (Vivastyle/Vivadent) recommendations. After bleaching treatments specimens were divided into two groups according to the treatment time of the adhesive procedures: immediately or 15 days after the bleaching treatments. The four groups were then divided into five subgroups due to the surface treatments: using a two-step self-etching adhesive (AdheSe, Ivoclar Vivadent G, Schaan, Liechtenstein) or a two-step etch and rinse adhesive (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent G, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and application of laser prior to adhesive procedures or not. After adhesive procedures nanohybrid composite resin cylinders of 4 mm x 2 mm (Tetric Evo Ceram/Vivadent) were bonded to the enamel surfaces. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test after thermocycling and 24h of storage in water. Data were analyzed statistically.
Mann-Whitney U-test analysis showed no significant difference in the mean bond strength values of enamel bleached with either 16% CP or 30% CP (p>0.05). There was no difference between the groups bonded immediately or 15 days after bleaching (p>0.05). Application of the etch and rinse adhesive after 15 days showed the highest bond strength values, whereas self-etching adhesive and laser application showed the lowest values in both bleaching treatments.
The results suggested that following the bleaching treatments, the use of etch and rinse adhesive system may provide higher bond strengths than self-etching adhesive and laser application.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents, both nonactivated and activated by a neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, and of antioxidant treatment on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Background data: Nd:YAG laser activation is expected to accelerate the bleaching therapy without decrease shear bond strength. Materials and methods: Ninety extracted maxillary central incisors were divided into two experimental groups and a control group. Group I was the control group, Group II was bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide and had no photoactivation, and Group III was bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide with activation by a Nd:YAG laser (4.0 W, 60 Hz frequency, 1 mm distance, 20 sec). Each group was divided into two subgroups: Subgroup A was immersed in artificial saliva for 2 weeks, and then bonded using the total etch system, whereas subgroup B was treated with an antioxidant agent (10% sodium ascorbate) and then bonded using the same system. The samples were stored in water for 24 h at 37°C, and thermocycled. The SBS in megapascals (MPa) was determined by a shear test with 1 mm/min crosshead speed, and failure types were classified with modified adhesive remnant index scores. The data were analyzed with two way analyses of variance, Tukey, and χ(2) tests at the α=0.05 level. Results: In both Groups II and III, the SBSs of brackets bonded after bleaching (Group II 15.16, Group III 17.50 MPa) were significantly lower than those of brackets in the bonded unbleached group (Group I 22.13 MPa); however, sodium ascorbate treatment significantly increased the SBSs of brackets in the bleached groups (Group II 21.52, Group III 22.43 MPa), but had an insignificant effect on the SBS of the control group (Group I 23.66MPa). Conclusions: Hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents reduce the SBSs both with and without Nd:YAG laser activation; however, treatment of the bleached enamel surface with 10% sodium ascorbate prior to bonding negates the effect.
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