Metabolic links between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT There is a cluster of risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and vascular disease that include high blood glucose, obesity, high blood pressure, increased blood triacylglycerols and insulin resistance. All of these factors, both individually and collectively, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia. Alterations in insulin signaling, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, as well as the accumulation of oxidatively modified and glycated proteins, are associated with both diabetes and the dementias. Data from animal and cell culture models have shown that there is a synergistic interaction between most of these stresses in both AD and diabetes, and with the elevated beta-amyloid peptide levels that are also linked to AD. Some of these parameters can be modified by diet and others may require novel drugs. However, because of the multiplicity of physiological pathways involved, conventional drug therapies directed against a single target are not going to be effective in treating AD or the complications of diabetes. It is therefore likely that the only successful therapy will involve the use of drugs with multiple targets in concert with changes in diet and lifestyle.
Article: Consequences of Aberrant Insulin Regulation in the Brain: Can Treating Diabetes be Effective for Alzheimer's Disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for new ways to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Current therapies are modestly effective at treating the symptoms, and do not significantly alter the course of the disease. Over the years, a range of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated interactions between diabetes mellitus and AD. As both diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and are frequent co-morbid conditions, it has raised the possibility that treating diabetes might be effective in slowing AD. This is currently being attempted with drugs such as the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. These two diseases share many clinical and biochemical features, such as elevated oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, amyloidogenesis and impaired glucose metabolism suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. The main thrust of this review will be to explore the evidence from a pathological point of view to determine whether diabetes can cause or exacerbate AD. This was supported by a number of animal models of AD that have been shown to have enhanced pathology when diabetic conditions were induced. The one drawback in linking diabetes and insulin to AD has been the postmortem studies of diabetic brains demonstrating that AD pathology was not increased; in fact decreased pathology has often been reported. In addition, diabetes induces its own distinct features of neuropathology different from AD. There are common pathological features to be considered including vascular abnormalities, a major feature arising from diabetes; there is increasing evidence that vascular abnormalities can contribute to AD. The most important common mechanism between insulin-resistant (type II) diabetes and AD could be impaired insulin signaling; a form of toxic amyloid can damage neuronal insulin receptors and affect insulin signaling and cell survival. It has even been suggested that AD could be considered as "type 3 diabetes" since insulin can be produced in brain. Another common feature of diabetes and AD are increased advanced glycation endproduct-modified proteins are found in diabetes and in the AD brain; the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts plays a prominent role in both diseases. In addition, a major role for insulin degrading enzyme in the degradation of Aβ peptide has been identified. Although clinical trials of certain types of diabetic medications for treatment of AD have been conducted, further understanding the common pathological processes of diabetes and AD are needed to determine whether these diseases share common therapeutic targets.DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 12/2011; 9(4):693-705. · 1.73 Impact Factor
Article: Carnosine: can understanding its actions on energy metabolism and protein homeostasis inform its therapeutic potential?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has contrasting but beneficial effects on cellular activity. It delays cellular senescence and rejuvenates cultured senescent mammalian cells. However, it also inhibits the growth of cultured tumour cells. Based on studies in several organisms, we speculate that carnosine exerts these apparently opposing actions by affecting energy metabolism and/or protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Specific effects on energy metabolism include the dipeptide's influence on cellular ATP concentrations. Carnosine's ability to reduce the formation of altered proteins (typically adducts of methylglyoxal) and enhance proteolysis of aberrant polypeptides is indicative of its influence on proteostasis. Furthermore these dual actions might provide a rationale for the use of carnosine in the treatment or prevention of diverse age-related conditions where energy metabolism or proteostasis are compromised. These include cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and the complications of type-2 diabetes (nephropathy, cataracts, stroke and pain), which might all benefit from knowledge of carnosine's mode of action on human cells.Chemistry Central Journal 02/2013; 7(1):38. · 3.28 Impact Factor
Article: Diabetes-accelerated memory dysfunction via cerebrovascular inflammation and Aβ deposition in an Alzheimer mouse model with diabetes[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiological studies suggest that diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for Alzheimer disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, to investigate the pathophysiological interaction between these diseases, we generated animal models that reflect the pathologic conditions of both diseases. We crossed Alzheimer transgenic mice (APP23) with two types of diabetic mice (ob/ob and NSY mice), and analyzed their metabolic and brain pathology. The onset of diabetes exacerbated Alzheimer-like cognitive dysfunction without an increase in brain amyloid-β burden in double-mutant (APP+-ob/ob) mice. Notably, APP+-ob/ob mice showed cerebrovascular inflammation and severe amyloid angiopathy. Conversely, the cross-bred mice showed an accelerated diabetic phenotype compared with ob/ob mice, suggesting that Alzheimer amyloid pathology could aggravate diabetes. Similarly, APP+-NSY fusion mice showed more severe glucose intolerance compared with diabetic NSY mice. Furthermore, high-fat diet feeding induced severe memory deficits in APP+-NSY mice without an increase in brain amyloid-β load. Here, we created Alzheimer mouse models with early onset of cognitive dysfunction. Cerebrovascular changes and alteration in brain insulin signaling might play a pivotal role in this relationship. These findings could provide insights into this intensely debated association.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2010; 107(15):7036-7041. · 9.68 Impact Factor