Paradigms and research programs in the study of teaching: A contemporary perspective

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    • "The lack of capability to create conditions favourable to an authoritative attitude may also hinder this way of acting . Differently to authoritarian behaviour , authority relates to a consistent competency to teach the content , which is associated with a proficient use of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge ( Shulman 1986 ) . Difficulties related to applying these knowledge dimensions were mentioned by PTs as an important influence on their self - efficacy . "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines physical education pre-service teachers’ (PTs) self-efficacy and practicum experiences as self-efficacy sources through a mixed-method approach. For the quantitative phase, a self-efficacy questionnaire was applied to 141 PTs. Results showed a stronger self-efficacy in the relationship with students and discipline promotion. Lower self-efficacy was linked to instructional strategies. Concerning the qualitative phase, eight PTs were interviewed. PTs with higher self-efficacy reported professional experiences before practicum as mastery experiences. During the practicum they highlighted as mastery experiences: classes’ characteristics, planning and teaching practice; lesson observation as vicarious experiences; and post-lesson conversations as verbal persuasion. PTs with lower self-efficacy reported classes’ characteristics and teaching practice as failure experiences. Lesson observation was linked to negative vicarious experiences and post-lesson conversations were associated to negative emotions and the absence of verbal persuasion. This study’s results have implications inasmuch as they confirm the role of the practicum in teacher education programmes and the importance of training supervisors in the implementation and management of the training experience, thus contributing to PTs’ self-efficacy development.
    European Journal of Teacher Education 10/2015; 38(2):263-279. DOI:10.1080/02619768.2014.968705 · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    • "In the eighties and nineties, emphasis was placed primarily on the knowledge that future teachers needed. Among others, Shulman (1986) attempted to differentiate the kind of specialised knowledge required for teaching that a well-educated person should have about a subject such as pedagogy. The emphasis on subject knowledge has covered the importance of other aspects of teaching related to the competence to plan, choose relevant methods, and carry out classroom activities and the relational work involved in creating learning communities in classrooms. "
    05/2015; 1(1):19. DOI:10.5296/jei.v1i1.7591
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    • "When reflecting critically at the first of these levels, the instrumental level, the academic focuses on trying to understand and describe the teaching process and what they want students to learn. At the communicative or process level of reflection, the focus shifts to how students learn and what the teacher can do to facilitate learning, that is, a focus on the development of pedagogical and pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986). While during the third level of reflection, reflecting at the emancipatory or premise level, the academic considers why they teach in the way they do and focuses on the purpose(s) of their practice. "
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    ABSTRACT: University science teaching remains fairly traditional in its approach, incorporating teacher-centred and lecture-based methodologies and utilising cook book laboratory practicals. Innovative science lecturers, however, have transformed their understanding and practice as teachers, placing their students at the heart of their actions and engaging in ongoing critical reflection about what they are doing, why they are doing it, and how their students are learning. Through the consideration of two case studies, this article explores what it is like to be an innovative science lecturer and what initially triggered and now sustains their transformation. It posits that critical reflection and transformative learning are at the heart of innovation in teaching in higher education, but that while intrinsically rewarding, engaging in such practice can put career progression at risk if not undertaken strategically.
    Journal of Transformative Education 04/2015; 13(2). DOI:10.1177/1541344615571417
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