High-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue in children with recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: the impact of prior radiotherapy on outcome.
ABSTRACT The role of myeloablative chemotherapy in children with recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (MB/ST-PNET) is controversial, in particular in patients who develop recurrent disease after craniospinal radiotherapy.
In this retrospective analysis, the authors investigated the outcome of children with recurrent MB/ST-PNET who were referred for myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles.
Thirty-three children were referred for myeloablative chemotherapy: Fourteen of those children were never transplanted because of pre-transplant adverse events, and 19, including 6 without and 13 with previous irradiation, underwent transplant. Conditioning regimens included a backbone of thiotepa, which was given either in a single cycle or in multiple sequential cycles. The 3-year post-transplant event-free survival rate in unirradiated versus previously irradiated children was 83% +/- 15% versus 20% +/- 12%, respectively (P = .04). One child who had never been exposed to radiotherapy died of toxicity; the other children received post-transplant radiotherapy and remained disease free. Nine previously irradiated children experienced 4 toxic deaths and 6 tumor recurrences (1 patient had both): An interval of <1 year between initial radiotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy predicted a greater risk of toxic death (P = .02), whereas a history of meningeal metastases at diagnosis and a poor response to the initial rescue therapy predicted a greater risk of post-transplant recurrence (P = .03 and P = .08, respectively).
Myeloablative doses of thiotepa-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy were able to cure most children who had radiotherapy-naive, chemoresponsive recurrences. Children who developed recurrences after craniospinal radiotherapy had poorer outcomes; however, cure was possible in those who had good prognostic features at presentation, chemoresponsive recurrences, and a long interval between initial radiotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: To identify biologic prognostic factors in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), including medulloblastoma, that accurately define patient groups with sufficiently good prognosis to permit a reduction in treatment intensity. We determined expression levels of the neurotrophin receptor TrkC mRNA in formalin-fixed tumor samples from 87 well characterized PNET patients using in situ hybridization. Comparison of TrkC mRNA expression levels with clinical and other laboratory variables was performed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. High TrkC mRNA expression was found to be associated more with higher 5-year cumulative survival rate than was low TrkC mRNA expression (89% v 46%, respectively). When compared with established clinical prognostic factors and laboratory variables of potential prognostic significance, TrkC mRNA expression, by univariate analysis, was found to be the single most powerful predictor of outcome (hazards ratio, 4.81; P <.00005), exceeding all clinical prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, the hazards ratio remained significant (P <.00005). High TrkC mRNA expression in PNET is a powerful independent predictor of favorable clinical outcome. Assessment of TrkC mRNA levels may aid in treatment planning for patients with PNETs and should be incorporated prospectively into PNET clinical trials.Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2000; 18(5):1027-35. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) have poor outcomes compared to medulloblastoma patients, despite similar treatments. In an effort to improve overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) and to decrease radiation exposure, the Head Start (HS) protocols treated children with newly diagnosed sPNET utilizing intensified induction chemotherapy (ICHT) followed by consolidation with myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR). Between 1991 and 2002, 43 children with sPNET were prospectively treated on two serial studies (HS I and II). After maximal safe surgical resection, patients on HS I and patients with localized disease on HS II were treated with five cycles of ICHT (vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide). Patients on HS II with disseminated disease received high-dose methotrexate during ICHT. If the disease remained stable or in response, patients received a single cycle of high-dose myeloablative chemotherapy followed by AuHCR. Five-year EFS and OS were 39% (95%CI: 24%, 53%) and 49 (95%CI: 33%, 62%), respectively. Non-pineal sPNET patients faired significantly better than those patients with pineal sPNETs. Metastasis at diagnosis, age, and extent of resection were not significant prognostic factors. Sixty percent of survivors (12 of 20) are alive without exposure to radiation therapy. ICHT followed by AuHCR in young patients with newly diagnosed sPNET appears to not only provide an improved EFS and OS for patients who typically have a poor prognosis, but also it successfully permitted deferral and elimination of radiation therapy in a significant proportion of patients.Pediatric Blood & Cancer 03/2008; 50(2):312-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. After treatment with surgery and radiation therapy, approximately 60% of children with medulloblastoma are alive and free of progressive disease 5 years after diagnosis, but many have significant neurocognitive sequelae. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility and efficacy of treating children with nondisseminated medulloblastoma with reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy. Over a 3-year period, 65 children between 3 and 10 years of age with nondisseminated medulloblastoma were treated with postoperative, reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy (23.4 Gy) and 55.8 Gy of local radiation therapy. Adjuvant vincristine chemotherapy was administered during radiotherapy, and lomustine, vincristine, and cisplatin chemotherapy was administered during and after radiation. Progression-free survival was 86% +/- 4% at 3 years and 79% +/- 7% at 5 years. Sites of relapse for the 14 patients who developed progressive disease included the local tumor site alone in two patients, local tumor site and disseminated disease in nine, and nonprimary sites in three. Brainstem involvement did not adversely affect outcome. Therapy was relatively well tolerated; however, the dose of cisplatin had to be modified in more than 50% of patients before the completion of treatment. One child died of pneumonitis and sepsis during treatment. These overall survival rates compare favorably to those obtained in studies using full-dose radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. The results suggest that reduced-dose craniospinal radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy during and after radiation is a feasible approach for children with nondisseminated medulloblastoma.Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/1999; 17(7):2127-36. · 18.04 Impact Factor