Colocalization of ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghrelin in gastric mucosal cells

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9077, USA.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 4.09). 05/2009; 297(1):E134-41. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.90859.2008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with many known functions, including orexigenic, blood glucose-regulatory, and antidepressant actions, among others. Mature ghrelin is unique in that it is the only known naturally occurring peptide to be posttranslationally modified by O-acylation with octanoate. This acylation is required for many of ghrelin's actions, including its effects on promoting increases in food intake and body weight. GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase), one of 16 members of the MBOAT family of membrane-bound O-acyltransferases, has recently been identified as the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the addition of the octanoyl group to ghrelin. Although the initial reports of GOAT have localized its encoding mRNA to tissues known to contain ghrelin, it is as yet unclear whether the octanoylation occurs within ghrelin-producing cells or in neighboring cells. Here, we have performed dual-label histochemical analysis on mouse stomach sections and quantitative PCR on mRNAs from highly enriched pools of mouse gastric ghrelin cells to demonstrate a high degree of GOAT mRNA expression within ghrelin-producing cells of the gastric oxyntic mucosa. We also demonstrate that GOAT is the only member of the MBOAT family whose expression is highly enriched within gastric ghrelin cells and whose whole body distribution mirrors that of ghrelin.

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    • "Plasma acylated-ghrelin levels of mice were measured using an EIA kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (#10006307, Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI) as previously described (Sakata et al., 2009). To determine acyl-ghrelin levels in ad lib or fasted mice, blood from mice with ad lib access to regular chow and from mice that had been fasted for 24 h was collected from tails into tubes containing EDTA, on ice. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates homeostatic and reward-related feeding behavior. Recent evidence indicates that acylation of ghrelin by the gut enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is necessary to render ghrelin maximally active within its target tissues. Here we tested the hypothesis that GOAT activity modulates food motivation and food hedonics using behavioral pharmacology and mutant mice deficient for GOAT and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR). We evaluated operant responding following pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin and assessed the necessity of endogenous GOAT activity for operant responding in GOAT and GHSR-null mice. Hedonic-based feeding behavior also was examined in GOAT-KO and GHSR-null mice using a "Dessert Effect" protocol in which the intake of a palatable high fat diet "dessert" was assessed in calorically-sated mice. Pharmacological administration of acyl-ghrelin augmented operant responding; notably, this effect was dependent on intact GHSR signaling. GOAT-KO mice displayed attenuated operant responding and decreased hedonic feeding relative to controls. These behavioral results correlated with decreased expression of the orexin-1 receptor in reward-related brain regions in GOAT-KO mice. In summary, the ability of ghrelin to stimulate food motivation is dependent on intact GHSR signaling and modified by endogenous GOAT activity. Furthermore, GOAT activity is required for hedonic feeding behavior, an effect potentially mediated by forebrain orexin signaling. These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding.
    Hormones and Behavior 09/2012; 62(5). DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.08.009
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    • "Localization of GOAT (Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase) and ghrelin was also recently studied by using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, and a high degree of colocalization of GOAT and ghrelin was observed in mouse gastric oxyntic mucosal cells [28]. On the other hand, ghrelin-GFP transgenic mice expressing humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) under control of the mouse ghrelin promoter has recently been generated and it has been confirmed that hrGFP expression was especially abundant in the gastric oxyntic mucosa, in a pattern mirroring that of ghrelin immunoreactivity and ghrelin mRNA [28] "
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is 28-amino-acid peptide that was discovered from the rat and human stomach in 1999. Since the discovery of ghrelin, various functions of ghrelin, including growth hormone release, feeding behavior, glucose metabolism, memory, and also antidepressant effects, have been studied. It has also been reported that ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract has an important physiological effect on gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin has a unique structure that is modified by O-acylation with n-octanoic acid at third serine residues, and this modification enzyme has recently been identified and named ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is considered to be a gut-brain peptide and is abundantly produced from endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. In the gastrointestinal tract, ghrelin cells are most abundant in the stomach and are localized in gastric mucosal layers. Ghrelin cells are also widely distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, abundance of ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa is evolutionally conserved from mammals to lower vertebrates, indicating that gastric ghrelin plays important roles for fundamental physiological functions. Ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a major source of circulating plasma ghrelin, and thus understanding the physiology of these cells would reveal the biological significance of ghrelin.
    International Journal of Peptides 03/2010; 2010(1687-9767). DOI:10.1155/2010/945056
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    ABSTRACT: Ingestion of food affects the secretion of hormones from specialized endocrine cells scattered within the intestinal mucosa. Upon release, these hormones mostly decrease food intake by signaling information to the brain. Although enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine were thought to represent the predominant gut–brain regulators of food intake, recent advances also established a major role for gastric hormones in these regulatory pathways. First and foremost, the gastric endocrine X/A-like cell was in the focus of many studies due to the production of ghrelin, which is until now the only known orexigenic hormone that is peripherally produced and centrally acting. Although X/A-cells were initially thought to only release one hormone that stimulates food intake, this view has changed with the identification of additional peptide products also derived from this cell, namely desacyl ghrelin, obestatin, and nesfatin-1. Desacyl ghrelin may play a counter-regulatory role to the food intake stimulatory effect of ghrelin. The same property was suggested for obestatin; however, this hypothesis could not be confirmed in numerous subsequent studies. Moreover, the description of the stomach as the major source of the novel anorexigenic hormone nesfatin-1 derived from the NUCB2 gene further corroborated the assumption that the gastric X/A-like cell products are not only stimulant but also inhibitors of feeding, thereby acting as so far unique dual regulator of food intake located in a logistically important place where the gastrointestinal tract has initial contact with food.
    Current Gastroenterology Reports 12/2012; 14(6). DOI:10.1007/s11894-012-0291-3
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