Celiac disease (CD) involves immunologically mediated intestinal damage with consequent micronutrient malabsorption and varied clinical manifestations, and there is a controversial association with infertility. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of CD in a population of infertile women with endometriosis.
A total of 120 women with a diagnosis of endometriosis confirmed by laparoscopy (study group) and 1,500 healthy female donors aged 18 to 45 years were tested for CD by the determination of IgA-transglutaminase antibody against human tissue transglutaminase (t-TGA) and anti-endomysium (anti-EMA) antibodies.
Nine of the 120 women in the study group were anti-tTGA positive and five of them were also anti-EMA positive. Four of these five patients were submitted to intestinal biopsy which revealed CD in three cases (2.5% prevalence). The overall CD prevalence among the population control group was 1:136 women (0.66%).
This is the first study reporting the prevalence of CD among women with endometriosis, showing that CD is common in this population group (2.5%) and may be clinically relevant.
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"Indeed, major increases in interferon-g and interleukin-6 are seen in both CD  and endometriosis . Moreover , CD and endometriosis are both considered immunologically mediated diseases . In addition, it has been demonstrated that HLA-DQ7 is twice as common in patients with endometriosis , and it may also influence the risk of future CD . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Primary infertility is an unusual presentation of celiac disease (CD). When non-classical symptoms are present, the diagnosis is not easy and it becomes even more difficult when CD is associated with endometriosis, representing a diagnostic challenge for medical practitioners and gynecologists.
A 34-year-old patient presented to the authors' observation with primary infertility. Formerly she was treated for endometriosis and the diagnosis of CD was delayed. A favorable clinical and serological response following a gluten-free-diet (GFD) was achieved and a successful pregnancy was obtained.
This case report emphasizes the role of the CD in women's infertility and the possible association between CD and endometriosis. Even if the relationship between these two diseases is still unclear and further studies to address this issue are required, more attention from gynecologists is needed, considering that the later this association is diagnosed, the greater the probability of adverse outcomes of health developing.
"Very recently, some first studies have hypothesized a potential link between endometriosis and CD, since these conditions share some similarities  . In our study, we investigated for the first time the prevalence of CD among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reproductive problems, such as delayed menarche, amenorrhea, early menopause, infertility, impotence, hypogonadism, recurrent abortions, and low-birth-weight or preterm deliveries, are now known to be among the atypical symptoms of coeliac disease (CD). The pathogenesis of reproductive disorders in CD is unclear, but some hypotheses have been suggested, including autoimmunity and macro- and/or micronutrient deficiency. Recent investigations which have focused on tissue transglutaminase are promising with respect to the clarification of the mechanism of infertility and poor pregnancy outcomes in CD. In this review, the effects of CD on male and female reproductive disorders and pregnancy outcomes are discussed and the need for CD screening in the case of reproductive problems is emphasized.