Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies.
ABSTRACT The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: The use of flavor-modifying strategies are important to improving the sensory profile of some excessively bitter and astringent functional ingredients, such as (+)-catechin (CAT). Two bitter blockers (ß-cyclodextrin [CYCLO], homoeriodictyol sodium salt [HED]), two sweeteners (sucrose [SUC], rebaudioside A [REB]), and two odorants (vanillin [VAN], black tea aroma [TEA]) were assessed for their efficacy at modifying the bitterness and astringency of CAT in model aqueous solutions. The intensity of oral sensations elicited by CAT was determined in duplicate in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of these stimuli by a trained panel (n = 15) using a 15 cm visual analogue scale. Overall, bitterness and astringency were most effectively reduced by ternary solutions containing CYCLO + REB or CYCLO + SUC (68%, 60%, and 45%, 43% for bitterness and astringency, respectively). Odorants were not effective at modifying the bitterness or astringency of CAT. We conclude that the use of select bitter blockers and sweeteners may be of value in optimizing the flavor and acceptance of functional food and beverages fortified with phenolic compounds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: (+)-Catechin is a bitter-tasting plant-derived health-promoting phenolic compound of interest to functional food and beverage manufacturers. We investigated the efficacy of bitter blockers, plant-based sweeteners, and odorants in decreasing the bitterness and astringency elicited by (+)-catechin. Some of these additives, both alone and in combination, reduced bitterness and astringency, and may therefore assist in optimizing the flavor and consumer acceptance of some phenolic-based functional foods and beverages.Journal of Food Science 05/2012; 77(6):S226-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02707.x · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our recent study demonstrated the protective action of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) against bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through their antioxidant capacities to scavenge reactive oxygen species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the alterations of liver protein profiles in estrogen-deficient middle-aged rats after GTP treatment by a gel-based proteomic approach. This may lead to understanding the mechanisms of GTPs in promoting bone health. Liver samples were obtained from 14-mo-old female OVX rats treated with no GTPs (OVX) or 0.5% (w/v) GTPs (OVX + GTP) in drinking water for 16 wk (n = 10/group). Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry was used to compare the liver protein profiles of pooled samples from the OVX and OVX + GTP groups. Liver proteins were labeled in duplicate by reversing the fluorescent dyes. Approximately 800 protein spots were detected. The expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 and adenosine triphosphate synthase were 2.0-fold and 1.5-fold higher in the OVX + GTP group versus the OVX group, respectively, whereas the expression level of catechol-O-methyltransferase was 1.5-fold lower in the OVX + GTP group versus the OVX group. The changes of superoxide dismutase-1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase in individual liver samples were confirmed by western blots. Our data provide further evidence for the antioxidant role of GTPs by increasing superoxide dismutase-1 and adenosine triphosphate synthase and the estrogen-associated effect of GTPs by decreasing catechol-O-methyltransferase.Nutrition 06/2011; 27(6):681-6. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2010.05.019 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Varying consumption trends and poor dietary habits had led to widespread prevalence of various lifestyles related disorders including obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia. The reliance of communities on processed foods is also detrimental factor in their progression. The concerted efforts are required in order to eliminate these problems. In this project, efforts were directed to prepare nutritious dietetic cookies using Black Cumin Fixed Oil (BCFO). Accordingly, formulations of cookies were modified to reduce the fats, sugar and energy level along with provision of some bioactive molecules from BCFO. The results indicated that reduction in fat and sugar levels provided less calorific value to cookies. However, utilization of BCFO (~4%) resulted in some quality retention even at reduced levels of fats and sugars. Furthermore, reducing the level of shortening and sugars resulted in decreased fat contents (45.61%) as compared to control. Similarly, total sugar levels were decreased by 43.17%. These cumulative factors led to dwindled calorific value by 37.98%. The reduction in fats and sugars led to decreased sensory appraisal from trained taste panel. However, at 40% reduction in fats and sugars were quite acceptable owing to presence of BCFO. It further provided protection against lipid per-oxidation as indicated from peroxide value. In the nutshell, preparation of nutritious and dietetic cookies using BCFO is feasible approach to reduce the calorific value of cookies and such novel products hold potential to reduce the obesity and related disorders.Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 05/2011; 10(5). DOI:10.3923/pjn.2011.451.456