The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.
"Phytochemicals has been introduced to support the immune system or fight against diseases1. Green tea and its constituents are important components of diet-based strategies to prevent various malignancies1. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea may provide protection and reduce cancer prevalence1. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the mechanism of tea polyphenols (TP)-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Proliferation of MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells was evaluated by MTT assays. Cellular ultrastructure was examined by electron microscopy. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. PCNA、 Cyclin D1、 Cyclin E and Survivin expression was measured by Western blot. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by TP. Spindle and round cells were loosely distributed with increased particles after TP treatment. Increased cell size, frequent nuclear atypia and a collapse of apoptosis were observed. The nucleus was pushed towards one side, while the cytoplasm was rich in free ribosome. The membrane of mitochondria was thickening, and the cell apoptotic body was observed. TP treated cells experienced significantly enhanced apoptosis compared with 5-Fu treated or control groups. The expression of survivin was downregulated by TP. To conclude, TP can inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis through downregulating the expression of survivin in breast cancer.
"years ago and holds potential to be employed as medicinal agent (Butt et al., 2009). The health benefits of garlic appear to be true today as diet-based therapy and its use as a dietary supplement is recommended in many countries (Raman et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the domain of nutrition, exploring the diet-health linkages is major area of research. The outcomes of such interventions led to widespread acceptance of functional and nutraceutical foods; however, augmenting immunity is a major concern of dietary regimens. Indeed, the immune system is incredible arrangement of specific organs and cells that enabled humans to carry out defense against undesired responses. Its proper functionality is essential to maintain the body homeostasis. Array of plants and their components hold immunomodulating properties. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhanced immunity against diseases. The review intended to highlight the importance of garlic (Allium sativum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), purple coneflower (Echinacea), black cumin (Nigella sativa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Astragalus and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as natural immune boosters. These plants are bestowed with functional ingredients that may provide protection against various menaces. Modes of their actions include boosting and functioning of immune system, activation and suppression of immune specialized cells, interfering in several pathways that eventually led to improvement in immune responses and defense system. In addition, some of these plants carry free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities that are helpful against cancer insurgence. Nevertheless, interaction between drugs and herbs/botanicals should be well investigated before recommended for their safe use, and such information must be disseminated to the allied stakeholders.
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 02/2014; 54(10):1298-308. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.633249 · 5.18 Impact Factor
"The term ‘green tea’ refers to the product manufactured from fresh tea leaves by steaming or drying at elevated temperatures with the precaution to avoid oxidation of the polyphenolic components known as catechins . The natural product (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) accounts for 50-80% of catechins in green tea, representing 200–300 mg in a brewed cup of green tea . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of EGCG, a major green tea catechin in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that EGCG can inhibit the activation of HIF-1alpha and NFkappaB, and VEGF expression, thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression. Sixteen eight-wk-old female mice (C57BL/6 J) were inoculated with 10^6 E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells in the left fourth mammary gland fat pad. Eight mice received EGCG at 50--100 mg/kg/d in drinking water for 4 weeks. 8 control mice received drinking water only. Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, tumors, heart and limb muscles were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and capillary density (CD) using CD31 immunohistochemistry. EGCG treatment significantly reduced tumor weight over the control (0.37 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.16 +/- 0.30 g; P < 0.01), tumor CD (109 +/- 20 vs. 156 +/- 12 capillary #/mm^2; P < 0.01), tumor VEGF expression (45.72 +/- 1.4 vs. 59.03 +/- 3.8 pg/mg; P < 0.01), respectively. But, it has no effects on the body weight, heart weight, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in the heart and skeletal muscle of mice. EGCG at 50 mug/ml significantly inhibited the activation of HIF-1alpha and NFkappaB as well as VEGF expression in cultured E0771 cells, compared to the control, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, directly targets both tumor cells and tumor vasculature, thereby inhibiting tumor growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of breast cancer, which is mediated by the inhibition of HIF-1alpha and NFkappaB activation as well as VEGF expression.
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