Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and advances in CT plaque imaging.
ABSTRACT The goal of this review is to highlight current advances in the non-invasive detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic disease including the so-called vulnerable plaque with computed tomography. Atherosclerotic disease encompasses stages of plaque progression, stabilization, and even regression. Traditionally, the focus of diagnostic imaging has been the detection of lumen-occluding atheroma. However, advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque have shown that, in certain stages of plaque progression, plaque is "vulnerable" and able to cause acute coronary syndromes despite "non-significant" vascular occlusion at baseline. This provides a rationale to improve our non-invasive imaging technology. Presented here are improvements in soft-tissue resolution with technical advancements as well as contrast-enhancement and lately even nanotechnology-based technology which are geared to detect the clinically elusive vulnerable plaque and provide an opportunity for preventative therapy.
Article: Comparative Analysis between SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and CT Coronary Angiography for Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study aims to discuss the relationship and difference between myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using SPECT and CT coronary angiography (CTCA) for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Five hundred and four cases undergoing MPI and CTCA were comparatively analyzed, including fifty six patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography in the same period. Among patients with negative MPI results, negative or positive CTCA occupied 84.7% or 15.3%, respectively. Among patients with positive MPI, positive or negative CTCA occupied 67.2% or 32.8%, respectively. Among patients with negative CTCA, negative or positive MPI occupied 94.4% or 5.6%, respectively. Among patients with positive CTCA, positive or negative MPI occupied 40.2% or 59.8%, respectively. Negative predictive value was relatively higher than the positive predictive value for positive CTCA eliminating or predicting abnormal haemodynamics. And there was no significant difference for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPI or CTCA in diagnosing CAD. Both MPI and CTCA have good diagnostic performance for CAD. They provide different and complementary information for diagnosis and evaluation of CAD, namely, detection of ischemia versus detection of atherosclerosis, which are quite different but have a definite internal link for each other.International journal of molecular imaging. 01/2012; 2012:253475.
Article: Multispectral optoacoustic tomography of matrix metalloproteinase activity in vulnerable human carotid plaques.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Elevated expression of cathepsins, integrins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is typically associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability. While fluorescent tagging of such molecules has been amply demonstrated, no imaging method was so far shown capable of resolving these inflammation-associated tags with high fidelity and resolution beyond microscopic depths. This study is aimed at demonstrating a new method with high potential for noninvasive clinical cardiovascular diagnostics of vulnerable plaques using high-resolution deep-tissue multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) technology. MMP-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe (MMPSense™ 680) was applied to human carotid plaques from symptomatic patients. Atherosclerotic activity was detected by tuning MSOT wavelengths to activation-dependent absorption changes of the molecules, structurally modified in the presence of enzymes. MSOT analysis simultaneously provided morphology along with heterogeneous MMP activity with better than 200 micron resolution throughout the intact plaque tissue. The results corresponded well with epi-fluorescence images made from thin cryosections. Elevated MMP activity was further confirmed by in situ zymography, accompanied by increased macrophage influx. We demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, the ability of MSOT to provide volumetric images of activatable molecular probe distribution deep within optically diffuse tissues. High-resolution mapping of MMP activity was achieved deep in the vulnerable plaque of intact human carotid specimens. This performance directly relates to pre-clinical screening applications in animal models and to clinical decision potential as it might eventually allow for highly specific visualization and staging of plaque vulnerability thus impacting therapeutic clinical decision making.Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 07/2011; 14(3):277-85. · 2.47 Impact Factor