Evidence that msh1p plays multiple roles in mitochondrial base excision repair.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial DNA is thought to be especially prone to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species generated through electron transport during cellular respiration. This damage is mitigated primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, one of the few DNA repair pathways with confirmed activity on mitochondrial DNA. Through genetic epistasis analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we examined the genetic interaction between each of the BER proteins previously shown to localize to the mitochondria. In addition, we describe a series of genetic interactions between BER components and the MutS homolog MSH1, a respiration-essential gene. We show that, in addition to their variable effects on mitochondrial function, mutant msh1 alleles conferring partial function interact genetically at different points in mitochondrial BER. In addition to this separation of function, we also found that the role of Msh1p in BER is unlikely to be involved in the avoidance of large-scale deletions and rearrangements.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins essential for ATP production. Mutant variants of the mtDNA polymerase cause mutagenesis that contributes to aging, genetic diseases, and sensitivity to environmental agents. We interrogated mtDNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with disease-associated mutations affecting conserved regions of the mtDNA polymerase, Mip1, in the presence of the wild type Mip1. Mutant frequency arising from mtDNA base substitutions that confer erythromycin resistance and deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats was determined. Previously, increased mutagenesis was observed in strains encoding mutant variants that were insufficient to maintain mtDNA and that were not expected to reduce polymerase fidelity or exonuclease proofreading. Increased mutagenesis could be explained by mutant variants stalling the replication fork, thereby predisposing the template DNA to irreparable damage that is bypassed with poor fidelity. This hypothesis suggests that the exogenous base-alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), would further increase mtDNA mutagenesis. Mitochondrial mutagenesis associated with MMS exposure was increased up to 30-fold in mip1 mutants containing disease-associated alterations that affect polymerase activity. Disrupting exonuclease activity of mutant variants was not associated with increased spontaneous mutagenesis compared with exonuclease-proficient alleles, suggesting that most or all of the mtDNA was replicated by wild type Mip1. A novel subset of C to G transversions was responsible for about half of the mutants arising after MMS exposure implicating error-prone bypass of methylated cytosines as the predominant mutational mechanism. Exposure to MMS does not disrupt exonuclease activity that suppresses deletions between 21-nucleotide direct repeats, suggesting the MMS-induce mutagenesis is not explained by inactivated exonuclease activity. Further, trace amounts of CdCl2 inhibit mtDNA replication but suppresses MMS-induced mutagenesis. These results suggest a novel mechanism wherein mutations that lead to hypermutation by DNA base-damaging agents and associate with mitochondrial disease may contribute to previously unexplained phenomena, such as the wide variation of age of disease onset and acquired mitochondrial toxicities.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004748. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004748 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The proper functioning of the cell depends on preserving the cellular genome. In yeast cells, a limited number of genes are located on mitochondrial DNA. Although the mechanisms underlying nuclear genome maintenance are well understood, much less is known about the mechanisms that ensure mitochondrial genome stability. Mitochondria influence the stability of the nuclear genome and vice versa. Little is known about the two-way communication and mutual influence of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Although the mitochondrial genome replicates independently of the nuclear genome and is organized by a distinct set of mitochondrial nucleoid proteins, nearly all genome stability mechanisms responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome, such as mismatch repair, base excision repair, and double-strand break repair via homologous recombination or the nonhomologous end-joining pathway, also act to protect mitochondrial DNA. In addition to mitochondria-specific DNA polymerase γ, the polymerases α, η, ζ, and Rev1 have been found in this organelle. A nuclear genome instability phenotype results from a failure of various mitochondrial functions, such as an electron transport chain activity breakdown leading to a decrease in ATP production, a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and a block in nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis. The loss of ΔΨ inhibits the production of iron-sulfur prosthetic groups, which impairs the assembly of Fe-S proteins, including those that mediate DNA transactions; disturbs iron homeostasis; leads to oxidative stress; and perturbs wobble tRNA modification and ribosome assembly, thereby affecting translation and leading to proteotoxic stress. In this review, we present the current knowledge of the mechanisms that govern mitochondrial genome maintenance and demonstrate ways in which the impairment of mitochondrial function can affect nuclear genome stability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2015; 82. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.01.013 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The glassy carbon electrode coated with electropolymerized methyl-red film, 1.2×10−6m in thickness, (PMRE) showed high sensitivity towards Hg(II) ions. PMREs were adopted to accumulate and detect Hg(II) ions in a pH 2.56 Britton–Robinson buffer solution. Cyclic voltammogram of the accumulated Hg species on PMREs exhibited an anodic wave at 0.64V and a cathodic wave at 0.13V, due to the oxidation of accumulated Hg species on PMREs and the reduction of Hg(II) ions in the solution, respectively. For this heterogeneous adsorption of Hg(II) ions onto PMREs, the maximum surface concentration, adsorption equilibrium, and Gibbs energy change were evaluated to be 5.12×10−6molm−2, 3.7×105lmol−1, and −30.1kJmol−1, respectively. The anodic peak current at 0.64V was linear with the concentration of Hg(II) ions in the range of 1.1×10−10 to 1.1×10−7M with a detection limit of 4.4×10−11M. The proposed method was utilized successfully for the detection of Hg(II) ions in the lake water.Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 10/2005; 110(2):246-251. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2005.02.002 · 3.84 Impact Factor