Integrating Case Topics in Medical School Curriculum to Enhance Multiple Skill Learning: Using Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as an Exemplary Case
ABSTRACT This article describes the use of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) as a theme to connect the learning of basic neurosciences with clinical applications across the age span within a systems-based, integrated curricular structure that emphasizes problem-based learning.
In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, the Western Regional Training Center for Fetal Alcohol Exposure at UCLA developed and integrated educational materials on FASDs into the curriculum for first-year medical students.
Quantitative and qualitative evaluations suggested materials were effective in enhancing student knowledge and skills related to FASDs, as well as embryology, brain development, substance abuse, developmental psychopathology, and medical ethics.
The use of a unifying theme integrating basic science and clinical information and skills is effective for medical student training in the prevention and treatment of common medical problems.
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- "Part of this challenge relates to a continuing need to improve FASD training among health care providers. Some providers may lack training in how to ask patients about prenatal alcohol exposure, in recognizing the features of FASD, and in making a diagnosis or knowing where to refer a patient for diagnosis (Elliott et al. 2006; FASD Regional Training Centers Consortium 2007; Gahagan et al. 2006; Paley et al. 2009). Stigmatization associated with FASD also may create obstacles in obtaining an accurate history of a child’s exposure to alcohol prenatally. "
ABSTRACT: Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities of known causation. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system dysfunction. Both animal and human studies, however, suggest that there may be considerable variability in the manifestations of in utero alcohol exposure across individuals, and, consequently, the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has come into usage to reflect the entire continuum of effects associated with such exposure. In addition to FAS, this term encompasses the conditions of partial FAS, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol-related birth defects. Despite extensive evidence of significant cognitive, behavioral, and social deficits in people with FASD, research on behavioral interventions for FASD has lagged behind. However, in recent years there has been a marked increase in efforts to design and test interventions for this population. This article will review current empirically tested interventions, methodological challenges, and suggestions for future directions in research on the treatment of FASD.Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 03/2011; 34(1):64-75. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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- "Interventions that are aimed at reducing participation in high-risk activities (e.g., alcohol and drug use) would be especially important for alcohol-exposed teens, as would be programs designed to assist adolescents and young adults with PAE in negotiating tasks that will allow them to live and function independently. To facilitate diagnosis and treatment of FASDs, it is imperative that professionals working in health care, education, social services, and the criminal justice system are properly trained in how to recognize individuals with PAE and educated regarding appropriate interventions for this population [Gahagan et al., 2006; FASD Regional Training Centers Consortium, 2007; Wedding et al., 2007; Mutch et al., 2009; Paley et al., 2009]. "
ABSTRACT: Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) do not meet the full criteria for FAS, but instead are diagnosed with partial FAS, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), or alcohol related birth defects (ARBD). The entire continuum of effects from PAE is increasingly being referred to under the umbrella term of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). An extensive body of research has documented major cognitive, behavioral, adaptive, social, and emotional impairments among individuals with FASDs. Although FAS was identified in the U.S. over 35 years ago, the development, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions for individuals with FASDs have lagged behind significantly. Encouragingly, however, in recent years there has been a marked increase in efforts to design and test interventions to remediate the impairments associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This article will review treatment needs and considerations for individuals with FASDs and their families, current empirically tested treatment approaches, case management issues, and suggestions for future directions in research on the treatment of FASDs.Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 01/2009; 15(3):258-67. DOI:10.1002/ddrr.67 · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current state of addiction training in medical schools, residencies including psychiatry, and addiction psychiatry and addiction medicine fellowships is presented. Deficits in addiction training are described as well as proposed models targeting training of relevant addiction clinical competencies. Specific recommendations address future roles for psychiatrists who specialize in addiction. Tables and boxes describe addiction training in medical school, residencies, and addiction fellowships, and outline a select history of physician contributions to the addiction field and physician education. Proposed competencies for primary care residents, principles of the patient-centered medical home, and recommended skillsets of tomorrow's psychiatry addiction specialists are outlined.The Psychiatric clinics of North America 06/2012; 35(2):461-80. DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2012.04.001 · 1.87 Impact Factor