Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a stress-related, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and atrial tachyarrhythmia in the absence of either structural heart disease or prolonged QT interval. Autosomal dominant and recessive forms of CPVT because of mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) have been reported. The objective of this study was the clinical and genetic characterization of the family of an individual initially diagnosed as a child in 1978.
We collected family medical history and recorded a four-generation pedigree. We performed mutation analysis of RyR2 "critical regions'' in the N-terminus, FKBP12.6 binding domain, Ca2+ binding domain, and transmembrane domains of the C-terminus by direct sequencing.
CPVT was diagnosed in two of the nine family members evaluated. Pedigree analysis suggested autosomal dominant disease transmission. There were no additional reports of seizures, pregnancy loss, neonatal death, or sudden cardiac death in family members. A novel RyR2 gene variant (W4645R) was found in four family members including two without symptoms. RyR2-W4645R segregates with disease in this family with incomplete penetrance. The W4645 residue is evolutionarily conserved in the transmembrane region adjacent to previously reported disease-causing mutations. Based on sorting intolerant from tolerant analysis of protein structure, RyR2-W4645R is predicted to be deleterious.
All current evidence supports RyR2-W4645R as a disease-causing variant, which was silent in persons for two generations before causing symptoms in persons for the next two generations, beginning in 1978.
"All the RyR2-M4109R but none of the RyR2-I606T carriers showed prominent postpacing QT prolongation during electrophysiological study, although both showed normal QT intervals during regular rhythm (Nof et al., 2011). Finally, VT and AT could be induced by isoproterenol infusion, an effect blocked by propranolol administration, in a mother and son both having a RyR2-W4645R mutation and clinical diagnoses of PVT and AT in an absence of detectable significant underlying cardiac disease (Beery et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) mutations are implicated in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) thought to result from altered myocyte Ca(2+) homeostasis reflecting inappropriate "leakiness" of RyR2-Ca(2+) release channels arising from increases in their basal activity, alterations in their phosphorylation, or defective interactions with other molecules or ions. The latter include calstabin, calsequestrin-2, Mg(2+), and extraluminal or intraluminal Ca(2+). Recent clinical studies additionally associate RyR2 abnormalities with atrial arrhythmias including atrial tachycardia (AT), fibrillation (AF), and standstill, and sinus node dysfunction (SND). Some RyR2 mutations associated with CPVT in mouse models also show such arrhythmias that similarly correlate with altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Some examples show evidence for increased Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of RyR2. A homozygotic RyR2-P2328S variant demonstrates potential arrhythmic substrate resulting from reduced conduction velocity (CV) in addition to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and ectopic action potential (AP) firing. Finally, one model with an increased RyR2 activity in the sino-atrial node (SAN) shows decreased automaticity in the presence of Ca(2+)-dependent decreases in I Ca, L and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca(2+) depletion.
Frontiers in Physiology 06/2013; 4:150. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00150 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the spectrum and prevalence of mutations in the RYR2-encoded cardiac ryanodine receptor in cases with exertional syncope and normal corrected QT interval (QTc).
Mutations in RYR2 cause type 1 catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT1), a cardiac channelopathy with increased propensity for lethal ventricular dysrhythmias. Most RYR2 mutational analyses target 3 canonical domains encoded by <40% of the translated exons. The extent of CPVT1-associated mutations localizing outside of these domains remains unknown as RYR2 has not been examined comprehensively in most patient cohorts.
Mutational analysis of all RYR2 exons was performed using polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing on 155 unrelated patients (49% females, 96% Caucasian, age at diagnosis 20 +/- 15 years, mean QTc 428 +/- 29 ms), with either clinical diagnosis of CPVT (n = 110) or an initial diagnosis of exercise-induced long QT syndrome but with QTc <480 ms and a subsequent negative long QT syndrome genetic test (n = 45).
Sixty-three (34 novel) possible CPVT1-associated mutations, absent in 400 reference alleles, were detected in 73 unrelated patients (47%). Thirteen new mutation-containing exons were identified. Two-thirds of the CPVT1-positive patients had mutations that localized to 1 of 16 exons.
Possible CPVT1 mutations in RYR2 were identified in nearly one-half of this cohort; 45 of the 105 translated exons are now known to host possible mutations. Considering that approximately 65% of CPVT1-positive cases would be discovered by selective analysis of 16 exons, a tiered targeting strategy for CPVT genetic testing should be considered.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2009; 54(22):2065-74. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.08.022 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, however the mechanism(s) causing AF remain poorly understood and therapy is suboptimal. The ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major calcium (Ca2+) release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) required for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.
In the present study, we sought to determine whether intracellular diastolic SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2 plays a role in triggering AF and whether inhibiting this leak can prevent AF.
We generated 3 knock-in mice with mutations introduced into RyR2 that result in leaky channels and cause exercise induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in humans [catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)]. We examined AF susceptibility in these three CPVT mouse models harboring RyR2 mutations to explore the role of diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in AF. AF was stimulated with an intra-esophageal burst pacing protocol in the 3 CPVT mouse models (RyR2-R2474S+/-, 70%; RyR2-N2386I+/-, 60%; RyR2-L433P+/-, 35.71%) but not in wild-type (WT) mice (P<0.05). Consistent with these in vivo results, there was a significant diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes isolated from the CPVT mouse models. Calstabin2 (FKBP12.6) is an RyR2 subunit that stabilizes the closed state of RyR2 and prevents a Ca2+ leak through the channel. Atrial RyR2 from RyR2-R2474S+/- mice were oxidized, and the RyR2 macromolecular complex was depleted of calstabin2. The Rycal drug S107 stabilizes the closed state of RyR2 by inhibiting the oxidation/phosphorylation induced dissociation of calstabin2 from the channel. S107 reduced the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes and decreased burst pacing-induced AF in vivo. S107 did not reduce the increased prevalence of burst pacing-induced AF in calstabin2-deficient mice, confirming that calstabin2 is required for the mechanism of action of the drug.
The present study demonstrates that RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes is associated with AF in CPVT mice. Moreover, the Rycal S107 inhibited diastolic SR Ca2+ leak through RyR2 and pacing-induced AF associated with CPVT mutations.
Circulation Research 07/2012; 111(6):708-17. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.273342 · 11.02 Impact Factor
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