Article

The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a cohort of schizophrenic patients followed for one year.

Department of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Journal of Psychiatric Research (Impact Factor: 4.09). 04/2009; 43(13):1106-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.03.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cross-sectional studies showed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.This study aimed to identify the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a non-preselected cohort of chronic psychotic patients in routine practice in one year follow-up and to find variables to describe development and reversal of metabolic syndrome. This cohort study was conducted as part of a disease management program and patients were included if they had two complete assessments in a one year follow-up. We conducted two logistic regressions to find variables to describe the development of metabolic syndrome and the reversal of metabolic syndrome. At the time of the first assessment 35% (n=92) of the 260 included patients had metabolic syndrome. Within one year 21 patients developed metabolic syndrome and 30 patients had it reversed. This was an incidence of 13% (21/168) and a reversal of 33% (30/92). Smoking, family history of cardiovascular diseases, and duration of disease >6 years was associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome as well as abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Patients with abdominal obesity had a smaller chance of reversing metabolic syndrome. Other variables included in the logistic regression such as receiving cardiovascular/antidiabetic drug treatment or duration of disease >6 years did not alter the risk of reversing the metabolic syndrome. Our study showed that the natural course of metabolic syndrome is dynamic. A considerable number of patients developed or reversed the metabolic syndrome in one year follow-up.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
108 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review the data with respect to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates in schizophrenia. For this review, electronic search engines PUBMED, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used. Available data suggests that most of the studies have been of cross-sectional design. Prevalence rates of MetS have varied from 11% to 69% in medicated patients, and 4-26% in drug naive patients in cross-sectional evaluations. Longitudinal studies have shown the prevalence rates to range from 0% to 14% at the baseline in drug naive patients, which increase to as high as 52.4% by 3 months of antipsychotic medication treatment. The prevalence rates of MetS in patients with schizophrenia are much higher than that seen in general population or healthy controls. Though there is no causal association with any demographic or clinical variables, the risk increases with increase in age. Among antipsychotics, there seems to be an association between MetS and atypical antipsychotics like clozapine and olanzapine. Therefore, the psychiatrists should be more vigilant regarding the presence of MetS in these high risk groups. Research on biological correlates of MetS in schizophrenia is still in its primitive stage, however, these is some evidence to suggest an association of MetS with adiponectin levels, hematological indices, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (ADRA1A) gene. These areas hold promise, and targeting these with appropriate interventions may help us to prevent the occurrence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia in future.
    Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 01/2013; 35(3):227-240.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: We aim to identify the prevalence and management strategies of nine clinically important categories of antipsychotic adverse effects, namely: extrapyramidal symptoms; sedation; weight gain; type II diabetes; hyperprolactinaemia; metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular effects. Background: Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are common, with a potential negative impact on adherence and engagement. Despite this, the scientific study of the prevalence or management of adverse antipsychotic effects is a neglected area. Method: A systematic review was undertaken using pre-defined search criteria and three databases, with hand searching of citations and references. Inclusion was agreed on by two independent researchers after review of abstracts or full text. Quality analysis of included studies was conducted using pre-agreed criteria. Results: In total, 53 studies met inclusion criteria, revealing the following: (1) antipsychotic polypharmacy was associated with increased frequency of adverse effects, and (2) a longer duration of treatment is associated with greater severity (e.g. higher BMI); (3) clozapine was more strongly associated with metabolic disturbance than other antipsychotics in three studies and olanzapine was associated with the most weight gain in three studies; (4) hyperprolactinaemia was more common in women than men, but 50% men noted sexual dysfunction versus 25–50% in women; (5) despite clinical guideline recommendations there is a low rate of baseline testing for lipids and glucose; and (6) seven studies described adverse effect management strategies, but only two examined their efficacy – one found a significant reduction in weight with non-pharmacological group therapy and the other found a significant reduction in dyslipidaemia with statins. Conclusions: Antipsychotic adverse effects are diverse and frequently experienced, but are not often systematically assessed. There is a need for further scientific study concerning the management of these side effects.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 12/2014; 1. · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the possible association between common and potentially functional polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes and metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. The possible associations of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes, and the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) Val16Ala polymorphism with the risks of being overweight and having metabolic syndrome were examined using a logistic regression analysis in 154 schizophrenic Japanese patients and 203 controls. Among smokers with schizophrenia, the risks of being overweight and having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in those with the GSTM1 null genotype than in those with the present genotype (odds ratio 3.20 and 3.15, P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively), while among nonsmokers with schizophrenia, the risk of an abnormal waist circumference was lower in those with the GSTM1 null genotype (odds ratio 0.34, P=0.04). The risk of a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly higher in patients with the combined GSTM1 null and GSTT1 present genotypes than in those with the present genotypes of both genes (odds ratio 3.60, P<0.01). The SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism was not associated with risk of metabolic abnormalities in either group. The present study suggests that the GSTM1 null genotype, in combination with smoking status or GSTT1 genotype, might be associated with the metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2013; 9:1683-98. · 2.15 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
49 Downloads
Available from
May 28, 2014