Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )

USDA Agricultural Research Service, PO Box 757200, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7200, USA.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.7). 05/2009; 74(3):C248-57. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01099.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extraction. Salmon heads that were subjected to high temperatures (95 degrees C) during smoking unexpectedly produced oils with fewer products of oxidation than their unprocessed counterparts, as measured by peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and fatty acids (FA). Higher temperatures and longer smoking times resulted in correspondingly lower quantities of oxidative products in the oils. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of smoke-processed oils confirmed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not being destroyed. Smoke-processing also imparted antioxidant potential to the extracted oils. Even when antioxidants, such as ethoxyquin or butylated hydroxytoluene, were added to raw oils, the smoke-processed oils still maintained lower levels of oxidation after 14 d of storage. However, decreased antioxidant capacity of smoke-processed oils was noted when they were heated above 75 degrees C. Vitamin studies supported the antioxidant results, with smoke-processed oils displaying higher levels of alpha-tocopherol than raw oils. Results suggest that smoking salmon prior to oil extraction can protect valuable PUFA-rich oils from oxidation. Improved preservation methods for marine oils may extend their usefulness when added as a supplement to enhance levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in foods.

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    • "Tel: +6285241650884. nitrooxide (Bower et al., 2009), whilst the compounds found at the surface which possibly also penetrate into fish flesh were aldehyde, keton, ester and ether (Gόmez- Guillén et al., 2009). Some researchers had reported the factors might affect the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of smoked fish. "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of smoked skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) produced in Kendari-South East Sulawesi had been studied. Samples were collected from four producers where direct smoking method was used. Three of the smoked fish producers used coconut shell (Cocos nucifera) as smoke resource, while one producer used a combination of coconut shell (C. nucifera) and “bakau”-mangrove wood (Rhizophora sp.) for smoke resource. It was found that colour (L*, a*, b* values), texture, water activity, protein, fat and ash contents were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between samples, however only moisture contents were significantly different (P < 0.05). The sensory evaluation score showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between organoleptic properties and it can be concluded that smoked skipjack tuna from Kendari were accepted by the panelists. Key words: Skipjack tuna, smoking process, quality traits.
    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 11/2012; 11(91):15819-15822. · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Salmon heads were smoke-processed as a method for reducing the oxidation of valuable marine lipids (Bower and others 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are highly valued by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Discarded pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) tissues were preserved using a combination of smoke-processing and acidification with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). All samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, ash, and lipid contents. Bacterial cell counts, pH, and lactic acid concentrations were recorded as a measure of LAB viability. Neither raw nor smoked salmon were free from spoilage during 60 d of storage. Only fermented samples successfully stabilized below pH 4.7, while retaining lactic acid concentrations over 15 g/L during storage. When smoked, fermented salmon head tissues were dried, the pH of the resulting high-protein "cracker" was significantly lower than when crackers were prepared only from the smoked (but not fermented) salmon material. Both cracker varieties retained valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids. This research suggests that salmon-head tissues discarded after oil extraction represent a good source of protein and high-value fatty acids in a shelf-stable form. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Alaska salmon oils are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and are highly valued by the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the tissue that remains after oil extraction does not have an established market. Material produced from salmon tissue discarded after oil extraction may represent a valuable resource for preparing high-protein crackers and other fish-based food products. In addition to providing a unique smoke-flavoring, the smoked, fermented fish material may also impart antioxidant factors thereby extending the shelf life of the product.
    Journal of Food Science 04/2010; 75(3):C241-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01521.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salmon processing waste can create disposal issues unless a fish meal plant is located nearby. Other preservation methods, such as fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), are less energy intensive, but require an added carbohydrate. In this study, pink salmon heads (raw, smoked or cooked) were mixed with potatoes at different ratios and incubated with LAB. An initial pH drop was observed, with concurrent production of lactic acid, for all salmon–potato silages within 24 h; however, only silages composed of 100% potato or salmon with added sucrose became stable and remained at or below pH 4.8 for 60 days. Increasing the potato content of the potato–salmon silage increased the initial acidification, but did not prevent a rise in pH during storage. This study suggests that discarded agricultural products such as potatoes might be useful as a carbohydrate supplement for LAB preservation of fish by‐products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSPink salmon by‐products, such as heads and viscera, create disposal issues for fish processors in Alaska. However, preserving these high‐protein wastes through natural acidification (using lactic acid bacteria) requires an added carbohydrate to promote fermentation during silage production. Agricultural waste products such as discarded potatoes represent a convenient source of fermentable carbohydrate. Once preserved, fish processing waste offers an inexpensive feed source for agricultural animals, or as aquaculture feeds or local compost for vegetable farming.
    Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 12/2011; 35(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2011.00535.x · 1.16 Impact Factor
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