Article

An in-vivo study of the efficacy and safety of ethno-veterinary remedies used to control cattle ticks by rural farmers in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Department of Livestock and Pasture Sciences, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X 1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa.
Tropical Animal Health and Production (Impact Factor: 1.09). 05/2009; 41(7):1569-76. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9348-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ticks feed on blood, are vectors of tick-borne diseases and cause considerable skin damage to livestock. They are commonly controlled using commercial acaricides, which are expensive to the rural farmers, causing them to resort to alternative tick control methods. The objective of this study was to assess the acaricidal properties and safety of some materials (Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Aloe ferox, Lantana camara, Tagetes minuta, Used engine oil and Jeyes fluid, used by rural farmers to control cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 52 cattle were divided into 13 experimental groups with 4 cattle in each. Jeyes fluid at 76.8% concentration and Used engine oil had an efficacy that was almost similar to that of the positive control Ektoban (Cymiazol 17.5 and cypermethrin 2.5%). Extracts of L. camara at 40% concentration had an efficacy of 57% while A. ferox, P. obliquum and T. minuta were not effective. The test materials had no irritation effect on rats. The study revealed that the materials rural farmers use as acaricides vary in their efficacy in controlling ticks.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
66 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation.
    Veterinary Parasitology 05/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.
    Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology: Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria 12/2012; 21(4):405-11. · 0.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales) against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%), beta-ocimene (16.83%) and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl)-furan (11.94%). Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P < 0.05) dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL) and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL) for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P < 0.05) delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents.
    The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research 02/2012; 79(1):E1-E5. · 0.55 Impact Factor