An in-vivo study of the efficacy and safety of ethno-veterinary remedies used to control cattle ticks by rural farmers in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.
ABSTRACT Ticks feed on blood, are vectors of tick-borne diseases and cause considerable skin damage to livestock. They are commonly controlled using commercial acaricides, which are expensive to the rural farmers, causing them to resort to alternative tick control methods. The objective of this study was to assess the acaricidal properties and safety of some materials (Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Aloe ferox, Lantana camara, Tagetes minuta, Used engine oil and Jeyes fluid, used by rural farmers to control cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 52 cattle were divided into 13 experimental groups with 4 cattle in each. Jeyes fluid at 76.8% concentration and Used engine oil had an efficacy that was almost similar to that of the positive control Ektoban (Cymiazol 17.5 and cypermethrin 2.5%). Extracts of L. camara at 40% concentration had an efficacy of 57% while A. ferox, P. obliquum and T. minuta were not effective. The test materials had no irritation effect on rats. The study revealed that the materials rural farmers use as acaricides vary in their efficacy in controlling ticks.
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to identify the species of ticks found on camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in Eastern Ethiopia. Collection and identification of the ticks were undertaken at 2-month intervals from December 1997 to August 1999. On each occasion, all the visible adult ticks were collected from one side of the body of each of the same 17 camels. The most abundant species of ticks on the camels were Rhipiephalus pulchellus (85.2%), Hyalomma dromedarii (5.9%), Amblyomma gemma (4.0%) and Amblyomma variegatum (1.8%). The average tick load per camel was higher during rainy months than during dry months. The smallest number of ticks per camel was observed during the driest month (December), whereas the highest was recorded in the wettest month (August). Any strategy intended to mitigate problems of tick infestation of camels in this area should take into account the identified tick species and their season of abundance.Tropical Animal Health and Production 05/2004; 36(3):225-31. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tests were conducted to assess the efficiency of the roots of Dahlstedtia pentaphylla (Taub.) Burk. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettiae) plant against infestations of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887). These tests were performed on 30 bovine animals in the Paraíba Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, divided into three groups (control, extract diluted at 1:10 mL and extract diluted at 1:20 mL), after artificial infestation with some 4000 larvae/animal on days -21, -14, -7, -1, 0, 7 and 14. The extract of D. pentaphylla was obtained by dehydration, spraying and extraction in absolute ethanol, at a proportion of one part of root powder to three parts of ethanol, this being taken as standard (100%). This standard extract was then diluted in water at one part of extract to 10 and 20, for spraying on the bovines. The best result obtained (an efficiency rate of 76.10%) was seen 3 days after the application of the extract at a concentration of 1:10 mL. The extract showed no effect in inhibition of the laying or hatching of larvae on engorged females, these being collected from the bovines after treatment, and kept in the laboratory.Veterinary Parasitology 12/2006; 142(1-2):192-5. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have optimized a larval immersion microassay (LIM) that offers superior sensitivity, flexibility to accommodate multiple formulations, and a robust capability for rapidly screening many compounds with a minimal requirement of test article for evaluation. Dose-response studies were conducted for representative members from the organophosphate, pyrethroid, pyrazole, carbamate, macrocyclic lactone, and formamidine chemistries against Amblyomma americanum (L.). Time-response experiments revealed that permethrin was the most rapid acting, whereas fipronil had the slowest speed-of-kill against A. americanum. Comparison of drug susceptibility profiles between multiple ixodid ticks suggests that A. americanum is an effective model for predicting compound potency against Boophilus spp. in this bioassay. The LIM is suitable for the identification and characterization of active molecules from small- and medium-sized compound or natural product libraries, and it can be a useful tool to prioritize molecules for further in vivo testing in animal models.Journal of Medical Entomology 12/2004; 41(6):1034-42. · 1.86 Impact Factor