Efficacy and safety of 1 and 2 doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine in vaccine-naive children.

Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 05/2009; 28(5):365-71.
Source: PubMed


We investigated the efficacy and safety of 1 versus 2 doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in influenza vaccine-naive children aged 6 to <36 months.
Subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 regimens in year 1: 2 doses LAIV, 1 dose LAIV, excipient placebo, or saline placebo. In year 2, LAIV recipients were to receive 1 dose of LAIV and placebo recipients were to receive saline placebo. Because of an unintended treatment allocation error in year 2, 1 block of subjects who were randomized to LAIV received saline placebo and 1 block who were randomized to placebo received LAIV.
In year 1, vaccine efficacy versus placebo among recipients of 2 and 1 doses of LAIV was 73.5% and 57.7%, respectively, against antigenically similar strains. In year 2, absolute efficacy of a single dose of LAIV was 73.6% and 65.2%, respectively, in recipients of 2 and 1 doses of LAIV in year 1. Year 2 efficacy was 57.0% in subjects who received 2 doses of LAIV in year 1 and placebo in year 2. Safety and tolerability of LAIV were consistent with previous studies. Reactogenicity was similar between placebo groups. Seroconversion rates were significantly higher in the 2-dose versus the 1-dose LAIV group in year 1 and in both LAIV groups versus placebo in years 1 and 2.
One dose of LAIV provided clinically significant protection against influenza in young children previously unvaccinated against influenza; 2 doses provided additional protection. Protection after 2 doses in year 1 persisted through a second season without revaccination. LAIV excipients were not a major contributor to reactogenicity. These benefits provide support for increased use of LAIV in children > or =2 years of age.

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Available from: Miguel Tregnaghi, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "The vaccine is administered as a nasal spray using the Accuspray device (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Nine randomized, controlled clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of LAIV against culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with placebo or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]. A previous meta-analysis of these trials by Rhorer et al. [19] evaluated the efficacy of LAIV in children in all subjects enrolled, many of whom were 6–23 months of age. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nine randomized controlled clinical trials, including approximately 26,000 children aged 6 months to 17 years, have evaluated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against culture-confirmed influenza illness compared with placebo or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The objective of the current analysis was to integrate available LAIV efficacy data in children aged 2-17 years, the group for whom LAIV is approved for use. A meta-analysis was conducted using all available randomized controlled trials and a fixed-effects model. Cases caused by drifted influenza B were analyzed as originally classified and with all antigenic variants classified as dissimilar. Five placebo-controlled trials (4 were 2-season trials) and 3 single-season TIV-controlled trials were analyzed. Compared with placebo, year 1 efficacy of 2 doses of LAIV was 83% (95% CI: 78, 87) against antigenically similar strains; efficacy was 87% (95% CI: 78, 93), 86% (95% CI: 79, 91), and 76% (95% CI: 63, 84) for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B, respectively. Classifying B variants as dissimilar, efficacy against all similar strains was 87% (95% CI: 83, 91) and 93% (95% CI: 83, 97) against similar B strains. Year 2 efficacy was 87% (95% CI: 82, 91) against similar strains. Compared with TIV, LAIV recipients experienced 44% (95% CI: 28, 56) and 48% (95% CI: 38, 57) fewer cases of influenza illness caused by similar strains and all strains, respectively. LAIV efficacy estimates for children from Europe, the United States, and Middle East were robust and were similar to or higher than those for the overall population. In children aged 2-17 years, LAIV demonstrated high efficacy after 2 doses in year 1 and revaccination in year 2, and greater efficacy compared with TIV. This meta-analysis provides precise estimates of LAIV efficacy among the approved pediatric age group.
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