Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)-induced venous rupture is a common complication of hemodialysis access interventions. The authors sought to determine if venous rupture rates and management differed between grafts and fistulas, and in the fistula subset, between transposed and nontransposed fistulas.
Patients experiencing venous rupture during hemodialysis PTA over a 5-year period were identified. Of 1,985 hemodialysis interventions, 75 ruptures occurred in 69 patients (46 women) with a mean age of 63 years (range, 31-88 y). Rupture rates, proportion of successful treatments, and treatment type and number (ie, balloon tamponade, stent, covered stent) were determined.
Rupture was more common in fistulas overall (5.6%, 39 of 693) compared with grafts (2.8%, 36 of 1,292; P = .002), in transposed (10.7%, 20 of 187) compared with nontransposed fistulas (3.8%, 19 of 506; P = .001), and in transposed fistulas compared with grafts (P = .0001). There was no significant difference between nontransposed fistulas and grafts. Treatment success (ie, resolution of extravasation) was the same among groups: 69% (27 of 39) in fistulas overall, 70% (14 of 20) in transposed fistulas, 68% (13 of 19) in nontransposed fistulas, and 72% (26 of 36) in grafts. There was a greater need for stents in grafts (38.9%, 14 of 36) compared with fistulas (12.8%, five of 39; P = .003).
PTA-induced rupture is more common in fistulas than grafts, and this effect seems nearly entirely driven by transposed fistulas. Although rupture treatment in fistulas of all types yielded similar success to grafts, and graft ruptures were more difficult to treat than fistula ruptures, the high rupture rates in transposed fistulas attest to the increased difficulty of treating this subset of fistulas.
"In the study, based on our definition, we calculated the grade 3 rupture rates, which was estimated in the published literature to be approximately 1.4 ± 0.5%, ranging from 0.8-2% (4, 5, 12-14). The grade 3 rupture rate in our study was 1.3%, which was comparable to the reported series. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses.
We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method.
Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post-seal-off primary patency vs. secondary patency at 90, 180 and 360 days were 66.7 ± 11.1% vs. 94.4 ± 5.4%; 33.3 ± 11.1% vs. 83.3 ± 8.8%; and 13.3 ± 8.5% vs. 63.3 ± 12.1%, respectively.
Our results suggest that the NBCA seal-off technique is effective for immediate control of a venous rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for hemodialysis accesses. Both high technical and clinical success rates can be achieved. However, the treatment is not durable, and about 40% of the completely sealed off accesses are associated with developed delayed pseudoaneurysms in a 2-month of follow-up. Further repair of the vascular tear site, with surgery or stent-graft insertion, is often necessary.
Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 01/2013; 14(1):70-80. DOI:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.1.70 · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The surgically placed dialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI)and the Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative to be the ideal choice for hemodialysis access. A significant number of newly placed AVFs either slowly or never adequately mature sufficiently to provide for adequate dialysis. The balloon-assisted maturation (BAM) procedure utilizes serial angioplasty to promote and accelerate AVF maturation. We present a minimally invasive AVF maturation technique utilizing angioplasty, stent-graft, and coil embolization.
A 41-year-old white woman presented with an nonmaturing AVF with multiple venous outflow channels. An adequately functioning AVF was achieved after 2 treatments including coil embolization, angioplasty, and stent-graft placement.
Adequate thrill and dialysis flow was achieved. Patient has done well during short-term follow-up without further intervention.
BAM techniques can be an effective tool to help a dialysis patient achieve an adequately mature AVF. Additional vascular interventional techniques may be utilized to further improve clinical results. For the purpose of this report we call this technique "augmented balloon-assisted maturation," or aBAM.
The journal of vascular access 11/2010; 12(1):9-12. DOI:10.5301/JVA.2010.6018 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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