In vitro characterization of the effects of rat/mouse hemokinin-1 on mouse colonic contractile activity: a comparison with substance P.
ABSTRACT Rat/mouse hemokinin-1 (r/m HK-1) has been identified as a member of the tachykinin family and its effect in colonic contractile activity remains unknown. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of actions of r/m HK-1 on the mouse colonic contractile activity in vitro by comparing it with that of substance P (SP). R/m HK-1 induced substantial contractions on the circular muscle of mouse colon. The maximal contractile responses to r/m HK-1 varied significantly among proximal-, mid- and distal-colon, suggesting that the action of r/m HK-1 was region-specific in mouse colon. The contractile response induced by r/m HK-1 is primarily via activation of tachykinin NK(1) receptors leading to activation of cholinergic excitatory pathways and with a minor contribution of NK(2) receptors, which may be on the smooth muscle itself. A direct action on colonic smooth muscles may be also involved. In contrast, SP induced biphasic colonic responses (contractile and relaxant responses) on the circular muscle, in which the contractile action of SP was equieffective with r/m HK-1. SP exerted its contractile effect predominantly through neural and muscular tachykinin NK(1) receptors, but unlike r/m HK-1 did not appear to act via NK(2) receptors. The relaxation induced by SP was largely due to release of nitric oxide (NO) produced via an action on neural NK(1) receptors. These results indicate that the receptors and the activation properties involved in r/m HK-1-induced mouse colonic contractile activity are different from those of SP.
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ABSTRACT: The sites of action and possible roles of substance P in contracting the circular muscle of the guinea-pig ileum were studied using two analogues of substance P that act as antagonists of some of its actions. These ared-Arg1,d-Pro2,d-Trp7,9, Leu11-substance P andd-Pro2,d-Trp7,9-substance P, referred to by the single letter amino acid codes for the substituting amino acids as (RPWWL)-SP and (PWW)-SP, respectively.Records of circular muscle activity were taken from strips of intestine free of mucosa and submucosa and from rings with all layers of intestine intact. Substance P was equally effective in contracting the circular muscle strips as it was in contracting the longitudinal muscle. The contractions of strips were not blocked by hyoscine (210–6 M) or tetrodotoxin (610–7 M), but were substantially reduced by (RPWWL)-SP (6.710–6 M) or (PWW)-SP (210–5 M). In contrast, contractions of the circular muscle of whole rings of intestine elicited by low concentrations of substance P (410–7M) were blocked by hyoscine or tetrodotoxin but notreduced by the substance P antagonists in the concentrations referred to above. These observations indicate that the antagonists are effective at receptors for substance P on the muscle, but not at substance P receptors on enteric cholinergic nerves.Transmural stimulation of strips of circular muscle or of intestinal rings in the presence of hyoscine evoked contractions that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. These hyoscineresistant, nerve-mediated contractions could be elicited by single pulses in the strips. The contractions were reduced to less than 20% of original amplitude by (RPWWL)-SP (6.710–6M).Reflex contractions of the circular muscle recorded on the oral side of a distension stimulus had a low-threshold, hyoscine-sensitive and a high-threshold, hyoscine-insensitive, component. The low threshold component was unaffected by the substance P antagonists whereas the high threshold component was depressed.It is concluded that substance P nerves are effective in transmitting to the circular muscle, that they are final nerves in non-cholinergic excitatory reflexes, and that the substance P antagonist analogues can be used to distinguish actions of substance P at neural and muscle receptors.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/1985; 328(4):446-453. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hemokinin 1 (HK-1) is a new member of the tachykinin peptide family that is expressed in hematopoietic cells. Recent reports studying mouse, rat, and human orthologs of HK-1 demonstrate a broader distribution than originally reported. Our previous studies demonstrated that HK-1, by promoting proliferation, survival, and possibly maturation of B-cell precursors, plays an important role in B lymphopoiesis. Here we present data showing that HK-1 also influences T-cell development at a similar stage of differentiation. This peptide enhanced the proliferation of T-cell precursors and increased the number of thymocytes in fetal thymus organ cultures (FTOCs). Tachykinin antagonists, on the other hand, greatly reduced the cellularity of thymi both in vivo and in vitro. The major reduction occurred in the CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) cells and the CD44-CD25+ subset of the CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) cells. Of note, these populations also express HK-1, raising the possibility of autocrine or paracrine pathways influencing T-cell development as we previously reported for B-cell development. Consistent with this, the detrimental effect of tachykinin antagonists could be partially overcome with exogenous HK-1 peptide.Blood 10/2003; 102(6):2165-72. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. The effects of the novel mammalian tachykinin, hemokinin 1 (HEK-1), have been investigated by radioligand binding and functional in vitro and in vivo experiments. 2. Similar to SP (K(i)=0.13 nM), HEK-1 inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner and with high affinity [(3)H]-substance P (SP) binding to human NK(1) receptor (K(i)=0.175 nM) while its affinity for [(125)I]-neurokinin A (NKA) binding at human NK(2) receptor was markedly lower (K(i)=560 nM). 3. In isolated bioassays HEK-1 was a full agonist at tachykinin NK(1), NK(2) and NK(3) receptors. In the rat urinary bladder (RUB) HEK-1 was about 3 fold less potent than SP. In the rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) HEK-1 and in the guinea-pig ileum (GPI), HEK-1 was about 500 fold less potent than NKA and NKB, respectively. 4. The responses to HEK-1 were antagonized by GR 82334 in RUB (pK(B)=5.6+/-0.07), by nepadutant in RPA (pK(B)=8.6+/-0.04) and by SR 142801 in GPI (pK(B)=9.0+/-0.2) with apparent affinities comparable to that measured against tachykinin NK(1), NK(2) and NK(3) receptor-selective agonists, respectively. 5. Intravenous HEK-1 produced dose-related decrease of blood pressure in anaesthetized guinea-pigs (ED(50)=0.1 nmol kg(-1)) and salivary secretion in anaesthetized rats (ED(50)=6 nmol kg(-1)) with potencies similar to that of SP. All these effects were blocked by the selective tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist, SR 140333. 6. We conclude that HEK-1 is a full agonist at tachykinin NK(1), NK(2) and NK(3) receptors, possesses a remarkable selectivity for NK(1) as compared to NK(2) or NK(3) receptors and acts in vivo experiments with potency similar to that of SP.British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2002; 135(1):266-74. · 5.07 Impact Factor