Razafimandimbison S. G., McDowell T. D., Halford D. A. & Bremer B. — Molecular phylogenetics and genetic assessment in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae): How to circumscribe Morinda L. to be monophyletic? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Bergius Foundation, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Botany Department, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.02). 05/2009; 52(3):879-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Most of the species of the family Rubiaceae with flowers arranged in head inflorescences are currently classified in three distantly related tribes, Naucleeae (subfamily Cinchonoideae) and Morindeae and Schradereae (subfamily Rubioideae). Within Morindeae the type genus Morinda is traditionally and currently circumscribed based on its head inflorescences and syncarpous fruits (syncarps). These characters are also present in some members of its allied genera, raising doubts about the monophyly of Morinda. We perform Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using combined nrETS/nrITS/trnT-F data for 67 Morindeae taxa and five outgroups from the closely related tribes Mitchelleae and Gaertnereae to rigorously test the monophyly of Morinda as currently delimited and assess the phylogenetic value of head inflorescences and syncarps in Morinda and Morindeae and to evaluate generic relationships and limits in Morindeae. Our analyses demonstrate that head inflorescences and syncarps in Morinda and Morindeae are evolutionarily labile. Morinda is highly paraphyletic, unless the genera Coelospermum, Gynochthodes, Pogonolobus, and Sarcopygme are also included. Morindeae comprises four well-supported and morphologically distinct major lineages: Appunia clade, Morinda clade (including Sarcopygme and the lectotype M. royoc), Coelospermum clade (containing Pogonolobus and Morinda reticulata), and Gynochthodes-Morinda clade. Four possible alternatives for revising generic boundaries are presented to establish monophyletic units. We favor the recognition of the four major lineages of Morindeae as separate genera, because this classification reflects the occurrence of a considerable morphological diversity in the tribe and the phylogenetic and taxonomic distinctness of its newly delimited genera.

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Available from: Sylvain Razafimandimbison, Aug 23, 2015
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    • "Another well-preserved fruit fossil of a head-shaped infructescence was described as a new species, Morinda chinensis Shi, Liu & Jin, from the Changchang Formation in Hainan of China (Shi et al., 2012). Because Morinda is paraphyletic in tribe Morideae (Razafimandimbison et al., 2009) and the phylogenetic position of this fossil species is unclear, we used this fossil to calibrate the crown age of the tribe with the prior set to 44 + 1 Mya, which falls into the fossil age estimated from the late early Eocene to the early late Eocene (Shi et al., 2012). Most of the reported Rubiaceae fossils are dispersed pollen grains of a common tricolporate type. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and AimsPantropical intercontinental disjunction is a common biogeographical pattern in flowering plants exhibiting a discontinuous distribution primarily in tropical Asia, Africa and the Americas. Only a few plant groups with this pattern have been investigated at the generic level with molecular phylogenetic and biogeographical methods. Paederia (Rubiaceae) is a pantropical genus of 31 species of woody lianas, with the greatest species diversity in continental Asia and Madagascar and only two species from tropical America. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Paederia based on phylogenetic analyses to explore how the genus attained its pantropical distribution.Methods Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses using sequences of five plastid markers (the rbcL gene, rps16 intron, trnT-F region, atpB-rbcL spacer and psbA-trnH spacer). Biogeographical inferences were based on a Bayesian uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock together with both Bayesian and likelihood ancestral area reconstructions.Key ResultsThe data suggest an early diverged Asian lineage sister to the clade of the remaining species consisting of a predominantly Asian sub-clade and a primarily Malagasy sub-clade. Paederia is inferred to have originated in the Oligocene in tropical continental Asia. It then reached Africa in the early to middle Miocene, most probably via long-distance dispersal across the Indian Ocean. The two Neotropical species are inferred to have derived independently in the late Miocene from ancestors of Asia and East Africa, respectively.Conclusions The results demonstrate the importance of post-Boreotropical long-distance dispersals (across three major oceans) in shaping the global pantropical disjunction in some plants, such as Paederia, with small, winged diaspores adapted to long-distance dispersal by various agents including wind, ocean currents or birds. Overland migration is less likely to explain its palaeotropical disjunction between Asia and Africa.
    Annals of Botany 03/2013; 111(5). DOI:10.1093/aob/mct053 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    • "The molecular markers selected and most sequences in the dating analysis have been used widely in previous studies in Rubiaceae (e.g. Bremer, Andreasen & Olsson, 1995; Andersson & Rova, 1999; Rova et al., 2002; Church, 2003; Razafimandimbison, Kellogg & Bremer, 2004; Nie et al., 2005; Razafimandimbison et al., 2008, 2009; Bremer & Eriksson, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mitchella is a small genus of the Rubiaceae with only two species. It is the only herbaceous semishrub of the family showing a disjunct distribution in eastern Asia and eastern North America, extending to Central America. Its phylogeny and biogeographical diversification remain poorly understood. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses for Mitchella and its close relative Damnacanthus based on sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and four plastid markers (rbcL, atpB-rbcL, rps16 and trnL-F). Mitchella is monophyletic, consisting of an eastern Asian M. undulata clade and a New World M. repens clade. Our results also support Michella as the closest relative to the eastern Asian Damnacanthus. The divergence time between the two intercontinental disjunct Mitchella species was dated to 7.73 Mya, with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) of 3.14−12.53 Mya, using the Bayesian relaxed clock estimation. Ancestral area reconstructions suggest that the genus originated in eastern Asia. The semishrub Mitchella appears to have arisen from its woody ancestor in eastern Asia and then migrated to North America via the Bering land bridge in the late Miocene. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 02/2013; 171(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01321.x · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "The molecular markers selected and most sequences in the dating analysis have been used widely in previous studies in Rubiaceae (e.g. Bremer, Andreasen & Olsson, 1995; Andersson & Rova, 1999; Rova et al., 2002; Church, 2003; Razafimandimbison, Kellogg & Bremer, 2004; Nie et al., 2005; Razafimandimbison et al., 2008, 2009; Bremer & Eriksson, 2009). "
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 01/2013; 171:395-412. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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