Probing muscle myosin motor action: x-ray (m3 and m6) interference measurements report motor domain not lever arm movement.
ABSTRACT The key question in understanding how force and movement are produced in muscle concerns the nature of the cyclic interaction of myosin molecules with actin filaments. The lever arm of the globular head of each myosin molecule is thought in some way to swing axially on the actin-attached motor domain, thus propelling the actin filament past the myosin filament. Recent X-ray diffraction studies of vertebrate muscle, especially those involving the analysis of interference effects between myosin head arrays in the two halves of the thick filaments, have been claimed to prove that the lever arm moves at the same time as the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in response to muscle length or force steps. It was suggested that the sliding of myosin and actin filaments, the level of force produced and the lever arm angle are all directly coupled and that other models of lever arm movement will not fit the X-ray data. Here, we show that, in addition to interference across the A-band, which must be occurring, the observed meridional M3 and M6 X-ray intensity changes can all be explained very well by the changing diffraction effects during filament sliding caused by heads stereospecifically attached to actin moving axially relative to a population of detached or non-stereospecifically attached heads that remain fixed in position relative to the myosin filament backbone. Crucially, and contrary to previous interpretations, the X-ray interference results provide little direct information about the position of the myosin head lever arm; they are, in fact, reporting relative motor domain movements. The implications of the new interpretation are briefly assessed.
Article: The mechanism of the resistance to stretch of isometrically contracting single muscle fibres.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rapid attachment to actin of the detached motor domain of myosin dimers with one motor domain already attached has been hypothesized to explain the stretch-induced changes in X-ray interference and stiffness of active muscle. Here, using half-sarcomere mechanics in single frog muscle fibres (2.15 microm sarcomere length and 4 degrees C), we show that: (1) an increase in stiffness of the half-sarcomere under stretch is specific to isometric contraction and does not occur in rigor, indicating that the mechanism of stiffness increase is an increase in the number of attached motors; (2) 2 ms after 100 micros stretches (amplitude 2-8 nm per half-sarcomere) imposed during an isometric tetanus, the stiffness of the array of myosin motors in each half-sarcomere (e(m)) increases above the isometric value (e(m0)); (3) e(m) has a sigmoidal dependence on the distortion of the motor domains (Delta z) attached in isometric contraction, with a maximum approximately 2 e(m0) for a distortion of approximately 6 nm; e(m) is influenced by detachment of motors at z > 6 nm; (4) at the end of the 100 micros stretch the relation between e(m)/e(m0) and Delta z lies slightly but not significantly above that at 2 ms. These results support the idea that stretch-induced sliding of the actin filament distorts the actin-attached motor domain of the myosin dimers away from the centre of the sarcomere, providing the steric conditions for rapid attachment of the second motor domain. The rate of new motor attachment must be as high as 7.5 x 10(4) s(1) and explains the rapid and efficient increase of the resistance of active muscle to stretch.The Journal of Physiology 11/2009; 588(Pt 3):495-510. · 4.72 Impact Factor
Article: Remarks on Muscle Contraction Mechanism II. Isometric Tension Transient and Isotonic Velocity Transient.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitsui and Ohshima (2008) criticized the power-stroke model for muscle contraction and proposed a new model. In the new model, about 41% of the myosin heads are bound to actin filaments, and each bound head forms a complex MA(3) with three actin molecules A1, A2 and A3 forming the crossbridge. The complex translates along the actin filament cooperating with each other. The new model well explained the experimental data on the steady filament sliding. As an extension of the study, the isometric tension transient and isotonic velocity transient are investigated. Statistical ensemble of crossbridges is introduced, and variation of the binding probability of myosin head to A1 is considered. When the binding probability to A1 is zero, the Hill-type force-velocity relation is resulted in. When the binding probability to A1 becomes finite, the deviation from the Hill-type force-velocity relation takes place, as observed by Edman (1988). The characteristics of the isometric tension transient observed by Ford, Huxley and Simmons (1977) and of the isotonic velocity transient observed by Civan and Podolsky (1966) are theoretically reproduced. Ratios of the extensibility are estimated as 0.22 for the crossbridge, 0.26 for the myosin filament and 0.52 for the actin filament, in consistency with the values determined by X-ray diffraction by Wakabayashi et al. (1994).International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2011; 12(3):1697-726. · 2.60 Impact Factor