Use of calcium supplements and the risk of coronary heart disease in 52-62-year-old women: The Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study
ABSTRACT To analyse prospectively the effect of calcium or calcium+D supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD) in 52-62-year-old women.
10,555 52-62-year-old women from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study (OSTPRE) who did not have CHD at baseline were followed for nearly 7 years in 1994-2001. Information about use of calcium supplements and health events was obtained from two repeated questionnaires in 1989 and 1994. Information about causes of death during the follow-up was obtained from the Statistics Finland. Information about CHD and other disease morbidity before and during the follow-up was obtained from the Registry of Specially Refunded Drugs of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution (SII). Cox's proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the risk of CHD morbidity related to the use of calcium supplements. At baseline, 2723 women reported current use of calcium or calcium+D supplementation. During the follow-up, CHD was diagnosed in 513 women. Compared to non-users of calcium/calcium+D supplements, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of CHD was 1.24 (95% CI 1.02-1.52) in women who used these supplements. The multivariate adjusted HR for CHD morbidity in postmenopausal women who used calcium/calcium+D supplements was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.57).
Calcium or calcium+D supplementation appears to increase the risk of CHD among women before old age.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium intake has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects regarding hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), vascular disease, and stroke by several prospective cohort studies. However, recent studies have questioned the beneficial cardiovascular effects of calcium intake and instead have shown that high calcium intake is associated with an increased risk for CHD and stroke. These findings have created controversy and concern among physicians, because calcium is consumed by a large number of older men and women to prevent osteoporosis and bone fractures. Based on the methods of patient self-reporting of calcium intake and cardiovascular events, the conclusions drawn from the studies may not be entirely valid. Therefore, until more confirmatory data are available, physicians should not be dissuaded from prescribing calcium supplements to their patients. The best candidates are patients with low calcium intake, but their calcium supplementation should not exceed the recommended 1200 mg/d to 1500 mg/d.Journal of Clinical Hypertension 05/2014; 16(8). DOI:10.1111/jch.12347 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Atherosclerosis (AS) and osteoporosis are common diseases in elderly people and may be metabolically related. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to explore the association between common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery calcification (CAC), and BMD in postmenopausal women. In addition, the association of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and selected diseases with cIMT and carotid calcification was studied. Study design: The 290 women (mean age 73.6 years) included in this BoneBrainAtherosclerosis study (OSTPRE-BBA) were randomly selected from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) study cohort, Finland. Main outcome measures: For this cross-sectional study, cIMT was measured with B-mode ultrasound; femoral neck and total body BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results There were no statistically significant associations between mean cIMT and femoral neck T-score (p > 0.05). However, an increased maximum cIMT was significantly associated with low femoral neck T-score. In the osteoporotic group (T-score <-2.5, n = 20), the maximum cIMT was 2.51 ± 0.88 mm (mean ± SD); in the normal BMD group (T-score >-1, n = 122), it was 1.93 ± 0.64 mm (p = 0.001). The odds of having CAC were approximately four-fold higher in the osteoporotic group compared with the group with a normal femoral neck T-score (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, p = 0.038). The maximum cIMT was smaller in HT users (1.98 ± 0.56 mm, n = 190) than in non-users (2.16 ± 0.74 mm, n = 156, p = 0.036). Conclusions The results of our population-based study suggest that BMD is related to AS, at least in carotid arteries. They indirectly support the hypothesis of partially shared pathophysiological mechanisms between these two disorders.Maturitas 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.05.017 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ossein-hydroxyapatite complex (OHC) is a microcrystalline form of calcium which provides a number of additional minerals (magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc), and proteins (osteocalcine, type I collagen, type I insulin growth factor-II [IGF-I] [IGF-II], transforming growth factor beta [TGF β]) associated with bone metabolism. The objective of this review is to examine the role of OHC in preventing bone loss in different conditions.Climacteric 06/2014; 18(1):1-27. DOI:10.3109/13697137.2014.929107 · 2.24 Impact Factor