Anal fistula plug and fibrin glue versus conventional treatment in repair of complex anal fistulas.
ABSTRACT High transsphincteric fistulas are difficult to treat because fistulotomy of involved sphincter muscle results in incontinence. We compare our outcomes for anal fistula plug, fibrin glue, advancement flap closure, and seton drain insertion.
This is a retrospective study of patients treated for high transsphincteric anal fistulas. The primary outcome was full healing at 12 weeks postoperatively.
Between 1997 and 2008, 232 patients with anal fistula were identified in the St. Paul's Hospital Anal Fistula Database. Postoperative healing rates at the 12-week follow-up for the fistula plug, fibrin glue, flap advancement, and seton drain groups were 59.3%, 39.1%, 60.4%, and 32.6%, respectively (P < .0001).
Closure of the primary fistula opening using a biological anal fistula plug and anal flap advancement result in similar fistula healing rates in patients with high transsphincteric fistulae. These 2 strategies are superior to seton placement and fibrin glue. Given the low morbidity and relative simplicity of the procedure, the anal fistula plug is a viable alternative treatment for patients with high transsphincteric anal fistulas.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endorectal advancement flap repair is a well-recognized method for the treatment of complex anorectal fistula. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the clinical and functional results of endorectal advancement flaps for complex anorectal fistula and to identify factors that affect outcome. A prospective study of 56 patients was performed. Clinical and functional results were studied using the Wexner continence scale and anal manometry before and after surgery. Factors associated with recurrence and incontinence were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Sixty endorectal flaps were constructed in 56 patients. Mean age was 49 years (range 24-74). The fistula was of cryptoglandular origin in 91.1% cases. Mean follow-up was 43.8 months. The technique was repeated in four patients because of recurrence (7.1%), with subsequent healing in all cases. There were significant reductions in maximum resting pressure 3 months after surgery (83.6+/-33.2 vs 45.6+/-18.3, p<0.001) and maximum squeeze pressure (208.8+/-91.5 vs 169.5+/-75, p<0.001). Before surgery, five patients (8.9%) reported incontinence symptoms. After surgery, 78.6% patients had normal continence, seven patients (12.5%) complained of minor incontinence, and five (9%) had major continence disturbances. None of the variables studied (age, sex, previous fistula surgery, rectovaginal fistula, and Crohn's disease) affected the outcome of the procedure in multivariate analysis. Endorectal advancement flap repair is an effective technique for complex anal fistula, with a low recurrence rate (7.1%). Patients (21.4%) reported disturbed anal continence. It is still not possible to identify factors that are predictive of failure or incontinence.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2007; 22(3):259-64. · 2.24 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Long-term closure rates of anorectal fistulas using fibrin glue have been disappointing, possibly because of the liquid consistency of the glue. A suturable bioprosthetic plug (Surgisis, Cook Surgical, Inc.) was fashioned to close the primary opening of fistula tracts. A prospective cohort study was performed to compare fibrin glue vs. the anal fistula plug. Patients with high transsphincteric fistulas, or deeper, were prospectively enrolled. Patients with Crohn's disease or superficial fistulas were excluded. Age, gender, number and type of fistula tracts, and previous fistula surgeries were compared between groups. Under general anesthesia and in prone jackknife position, the tract was irrigated with hydrogen peroxide. Fistula tracts were occluded by fibrin glue vs. closure of the primary opening using a Surgisis anal fistula plug. Twenty-five patients were prospectively enrolled. Ten patients underwent fibrin glue closure, and 15 used a fistula plug. Patient's age, gender, fistula tract characteristics, and number of previous closure attempts was similar in both groups. In the fibrin glue group, six patients (60 percent) had persistence of one or more fistulas at three months, compared with two patients (13 percent) in the plug group (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Closure of the primary opening of a fistula tract using a suturable biologic anal fistula plug is an effective method of treating anorectal fistulas. The method seems to be more reliable than fibrin glue closure. The greater efficacy of the fistula plug may be the result of the ability to suture the plug in the primary opening, therefore, closing the primary opening more effectively. Further prospective, long-term studies are warranted.Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 03/2006; 49(3):371-6. · 3.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the Surgisis (Anal Fistula Plug) in multiple patients at our institution and present early clinical results along with notable clinical observations from our experience. This was a prospective analysis of all patients who received the Anal Fistula Plug for treatment of anorectal fistulas between April 2006 and February 2007. All tracts were irrigated with peroxide, the plug was inserted in the tract, and buried at the internal opening with 2-0 vicryl and mucosal advancement flap. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test. Forty-five patients were treated with the Anal Fistula Plug and one patient was lost to follow-up. There were 27 males and 17 females with average age of 44.1 years treated for simple (n = 24) or complex (n = 20) fistulas. Preliminary results indicated an 84 percent healing rate by 3 to 8 weeks postoperatively, which progressively declined from 72.7 percent at 8 weeks to 62.4 percent at 12 weeks and 54.6 percent at a median follow-up of 6.5 (range, 3-13) months. Long-term Anal Fistula Plug closure rate was significantly higher in patients with simple than complex fistulas (70.8 vs. 35 percent; P < 0.02) and with non-Crohn's disease vs. Crohn's disease (66.7 vs. 26.6 percent; P < 0.02). Patients with two successive plug placements had significantly lower closure rates than patients who underwent placement of the plug once (12.5 vs. 63.9 percent; P < 0.02). No significant difference in closure rates were found between patients with one vs. multiple fistula tracts. Postoperative complications included perianal abscess in five patients (3 Crohn's disease, 2 non-Crohn's disease). Anal Fistula Plug is most successful in the treatment of simple anorectal fistulas but is associated with a high failure rate in complex fistula and particularly in patients with Crohn's disease. Repeat plug placement is associated with increased failure. Given the relatively low morbidity associated with the procedure, Anal Fistula Plug should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with simple fistulas and as an alternative in selected patients with complex fistulas.Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 07/2008; 51(6):838-43. · 3.34 Impact Factor