Surface functionalization of titanium with carboxymethyl chitosan and immobilized bone morphogenetic protein-2 for enhanced osseointegration.
ABSTRACT Orthopedic implant failure has been attributed mainly to loosening of the implant from host bone, which may be due to poor bonding of the implant material to bone tissue, as well as to bacterial infection. One promising strategy to enhance tissue integration is to develop a selective biointeractive surface that simultaneously enhances bone cell function while decreasing bacterial adhesion. In this in vitro study, the surfaces of titanium alloy substrates were functionalized by first covalently grafting carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), followed by the conjugation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the CMCS-grafted surface. Bacterial adhesion on the substrates was assayed with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis . Cell functions were investigated using osteoblasts and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results showed that bacterial adhesion on both the CMCS and CMCS-BMP-2 functionalized surfaces was significantly reduced compared to that on the pristine substrates. In addition, the CMCS-BMP-2 modified substrates significantly promoted attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium mineral deposition of both osteoblast and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The achievement of the dual functions of bacterial adhesion reduction and cell function promotion by the CMCS-BMP-2 modified titanium substrates illustrates the good potential of such surfaces for enhancement of tissue integration and implant longevity.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews current approaches to the enhancement of bone regeneration at the interface with implant devices, by immobilization of biomolecules to titanium surfaces. In particular, techniques based on surface linking of peptides or extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are reviewed, trying to describe surface modification approaches and to present results of chemico-physical and biological evaluations, both in vitro and in vivo. Based on existing literature, surface modification by peptides or ECM proteins appears as an effective way to stimulate bone regeneration over that provided by titanium, as suggested by basic studies and in vitro results and confirmed by in vivo findings.European cells & materials 02/2006; 12:1-15. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim of the study was to design a 3D tissue-engineering scaffold capable of sequentially delivering two bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). The novel delivery system consisted of microspheres of polyelectrolyte complexes of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P(4)VN) and alginic acid loaded with the growth factors BMP-2 and BMP-7 which themselves were loaded into the scaffolds constructed of PLGA. Microspheres carrying the growth factors were prepared using polyelectrolyte solutions with different concentrations (4-10%) to control the growth factor release rate. Release kinetics was studied using albumin as the model drug and the populations that release their contents very early and very late in the release study were selected to carry BMP-2 and BMP-7, respectively. Foam porosity changed when the microspheres were loaded. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) from rats were seeded into these foams. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were found to be lowest and cell proliferation was highest at all time points with foams carrying both the microsphere populations, regardless of BMP presence. With the present doses used neither BMP-2 nor BMP-7 delivery had any direct effect on proliferation, however, they enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Co-administration of BMP enhanced osteogenic differentiation to a higher degree than with their single administration.Biomaterials 12/2008; 29(31):4195-204. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the first clinical reports on bone regeneration by two recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs), BMP-2 and BMP-7 (also named osteogenic protein-1, OP-1) have been published (1-4). Although both BMPs were able to support bone regeneration, a significant variation in individual response was observed with both proteins. Animal studies and laboratory experiments reveal a number of conditions that influence the osteoinductivity of BMP, such as BMP concentration, carrier properties and influence of local and systemic growth factors and hormones. In this paper, these studies and the clinical reports are reviewed, and the conditions that modulate the BMP-dependent osteoinduction are discussed. The information may provide clues as to how the performance of recombinant human BMP as bone-graft substitute in humans can be improved.European Journal of Endocrinology 02/2000; 142(1):9-21. · 3.14 Impact Factor