Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes.
ABSTRACT Current intakes of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in most individuals living in Western countries. A good natural source of these fatty acids is seafood, especially oily fish. Fish oil capsules contain these fatty acids too. Very long chain omega-3 fatty acids are readily incorporated from capsules into transport, functional, and storage pools. This incorporation is dose-dependent and follows a kinetic pattern that is characteristic for each pool. At sufficient levels of incorporation, EPA and DHA influence the physical nature of cell membranes and membrane protein-mediated responses, eicosanoid generation, cell signaling and gene expression in many different cell types. Through these mechanisms, EPA and DHA influence cell and tissue physiology, and the way cells and tissues respond to external signals. In most cases, the effects seen are compatible with improvements in disease biomarker profiles or in health-related outcomes. As a result, very long chain omega-3 fatty acids play a role in achieving optimal health and in protection against disease. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids protect against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and might be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, childhood learning, and behavior, and adult psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses. DHA has an important structural role in the eye and brain, and its supply early in life is known to be of vital importance. On the basis of the recognized health improvements brought about by long chain omega-3 fatty acids, recommendations have been made to increase their intake.
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ABSTRACT: In C. elegans, removal of the germline extends lifespan significantly. We demonstrate that the nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-49, enables the response to this physiological change by increasing the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation and fatty-acid desaturation. The coordinated augmentation of these processes is critical for germline-less animals to maintain their lipid stores and to sustain de novo fat synthesis during adulthood. Following germline ablation, NHR-49 is up-regulated in somatic cells by the conserved longevity determinants DAF-16/FOXO and TCER-1/TCERG1. Accordingly, NHR-49 overexpression in fertile animals extends their lifespan modestly. In fertile adults, nhr-49 expression is DAF-16/FOXO and TCER-1/TCERG1 independent although its depletion causes age-related lipid abnormalities. Our data provide molecular insights into how reproductive stimuli are integrated into global metabolic changes to alter the lifespan of the animal. They suggest that NHR-49 may facilitate the adaptation to loss of reproductive potential through synchronized enhancement of fatty-acid oxidation and desaturation, thus breaking down some fats ordained for reproduction and orchestrating a lipid profile conducive for somatic maintenance and longevity.PLoS Genetics 12/2014; 10(12):e1004829. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004829 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in highly developed and low- and middle-income nations is cardiovascular disease (CVD). The establishment of healthy dietary patterns is one of the cornerstones of CVD prevention, and nuts have emerged as favorable components of dietary patterns associated with reducing the CVD epidemic. The etiological connection between nuts for the prevention of CVD is based upon several lines of evidence. First, nuts are nutrient-dense whole foods that contain a distinctive mix of macronutrients, specific micronutrients and non-nutrients that have been associated with cardioprotection. Second, numerous human feeding trials have demonstrated that nut intake improves the serum lipid profile, reduces oxidation and inflammation, and improves vascular reactivity. Third, nut consumption is consistently associated with a reduced risk of CVD in many epidemiological studies. Lastly, a recent large randomized clinical trial conducted in Spain demonstrated that consuming mixed nuts daily lowers CVD risk by 30 %.12/2013; 2(4):258-266. DOI:10.1007/s13668-013-0059-x
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ABSTRACT: Due to increasing demand for fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) in aquafeeds, more sustainable alternatives such as plant-derived oils and proteins are needed. Camelina sativa products are viable feed ingredients given the high oil and crude protein content in its seed and meal, respectively. Atlantic salmon (initial weight ~240 g) were fed diets with complete or partial replacement of FO and/or FM with camelina oil (CO) and/or camelina meal (CM) in a 16 week feeding trial [Control diet: FO+FM; Test diets: 100%CO replacement of FO (100CO), or 100CO with a) solvent-extracted FM (SEFM), b) 10%CM, or c) SEFM+10%CM]. The growth performance (as measured by weight-specific growth rate) of salmon was significantly reduced in all camelina-containing diets except fish fed 100CO. A microarray experiment was conducted to identify transcripts in Atlantic salmon liver that respond to 100COSEFM10CM compared to control diet, and yielded 67 differentially expressed features (FDR < 5%). Ten out of eleven microarray-identified transcripts, including cpt1, pcb, lect-2 and clra, were validated by QPCR. In addition, QPCR assays including candidate genes involved in fatty acids biosynthesis (e.g. elovl2, fadsd5) were applied to all dietary treatments to study the impact of various camelina by-product containing diets on gene expression of these potential biomarkers. This nutrigenomic approach revealed several salmon genes involved in lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and immune function that responded to camelina-containing diets. Genes identified in this work could potentially be used as biomarkers to assist with the development of novel aquafeeds using camelina products.International Plant and Animal Genome Conference XXII 2014; 02/2015