Stem cells to pancreatic beta-cells: new sources for diabetes cell therapy.
ABSTRACT The number of patients worldwide suffering from the chronic disease diabetes mellitus is growing at an alarming rate. Insulin-secreting beta-cells in the islet of Langerhans are damaged to different extents in diabetic patients, either through an autoimmune reaction present in type 1 diabetic patients or through inherent changes within beta-cells that affect their function in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Cell replacement strategies via islet transplantation offer potential therapeutic options for diabetic patients. However, the discrepancy between the limited number of donor islets and the high number of patients who could benefit from such a treatment reflects the dire need for renewable sources of high-quality beta-cells. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into components of all three germ layers, including all pancreatic lineages. The ability to differentiate hESCs into beta-cells highlights a promising strategy to meet the shortage of beta-cells. Here, we review the different approaches that have been used to direct differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic and beta-cells. We will focus on recent progress in the understanding of signaling pathways and transcription factors during embryonic pancreas development and how this knowledge has helped to improve the methodology for high-efficiency beta-cell differentiation in vitro.
- SourceAvailable from: Shih-Liang Chang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that Cordyceps militaris (CM) has a hypoglycemic effect, but the actual mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the hypoglycemic mechanism of aqueous extracts of CM in normal Wistar rats. First, the optimal dose of CM for lowering plasma glucose and insulin secretion was tested. Further, atropine and hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) were injected and a western blot was used to investigate insulin signaling. It was found that 10 mg/kg CM extracts had a stronger hypoglycemic effect than a higher dose (100 mg/kg); therefore, a dose of 10 mg/kg was used in subsequent experiments. In normal rats, CM extracts decreased plasma glucose by 21.0% and induced additional insulin secretion by 54.5% after 30 min. When atropine or HC-3 was injected, CM induced a hypoglycemic effect, but the enhancement of insulin secretion was blocked. By western blotting, significant increases in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) were observed after CM feeding. However, the elevation of these signaling proteins was abolished by atropine or HC-3. Taken together, these findings indicate that CM can lower plasma glucose via the stimulation of insulin secretion and cholinergic activation involved in the hypoglycemic mechanism of normal Wistar rats.Phytotherapy Research 08/2012; 26(8):1173-7. DOI:10.1002/ptr.3709 · 2.40 Impact Factor
- Type 1 Diabetes - Pathogenesis, Genetics and Immunotherapy, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-362-0
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ABSTRACT: One key step in producing insulin-secreting cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells is the generation of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX1)-expressing pancreatic progenitor cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) has important roles in pancreas development and is widely used to induce pancreatic differentiation of ES cells. When RA was added directly to the activin A-induced hES cells, <20% cells were positive for the pancreatic marker PDX1, whereas the other cells were mainly hepatic cells. We found that when the activin A-induced hES cells were replated and seeded at low cell densities, the addition of RA induced significant pancreatic differentiation and over 70% of cells in culture expressed PDX1. When the endodermal cells were isolated with the surface marker CXCR4 from the activin A-induced culture and further differentiated with RA, a homogeneous PDX1(+) cell population (over 95% pure) was generated. The PDX1(+) cells could further differentiate into cells that expressed pancreatic transcription factors and pancreatic endocrine or exocrine markers. We also found that RA inhibited the hepatic differentiation of endodermal cells that were seeded at low cell densities, and this inhibition may have been through the inhibition of Smad1/5/8 activity. Thus, we present a highly efficient and reproducible protocol for generating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitor cells from hES cells.Journal of Molecular Cell Biology 11/2009; 2(1):50-60. DOI:10.1093/jmcb/mjp037 · 8.43 Impact Factor