Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles protect against acute tubular injury.
ABSTRACT Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). The mechanism may involve paracrine factors promoting proliferation of surviving intrinsic epithelial cells, but these factors remain unknown. In the current study, we found that microvesicles derived from human bone marrow MSCs stimulated proliferation in vitro and conferred resistance of tubular epithelial cells to apoptosis. The biologic action of microvesicles required their CD44- and beta1-integrin-dependent incorporation into tubular cells. In vivo, microvesicles accelerated the morphologic and functional recovery of glycerol-induced AKI in SCID mice by inducing proliferation of tubular cells. The effect of microvesicles on the recovery of AKI was similar to the effect of human MSCs. RNase abolished the aforementioned effects of microvesicles in vitro and in vivo, suggesting RNA-dependent biologic effects. Microarray analysis and quantitative real time PCR of microvesicle-RNA extracts indicate that microvesicles shuttle a specific subset of cellular mRNA, such as mRNAs associated with the mesenchymal phenotype and with control of transcription, proliferation, and immunoregulation. These results suggest that microvesicles derived from MSCs may activate a proliferative program in surviving tubular cells after injury via a horizontal transfer of mRNA.
SourceAvailable from: Elli Papadimitriou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As in several body fluids, urine is a rich reservoir of extracellular vesicles (EVs) directly originating from cells facing the urinary lumen, including differentiated tubular cells, progenitor cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Several markers of glomerular and tubular damage, such as WT-1, ATF3 and NGAL, as well as of renal regeneration, such as CD133, have been identified representing an incredible source of information for diagnostic purposes. In addition, urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) appear to be involved in the cell-to-cell communication along the nephron, although this aspect needs further elucidation. Finally, uEVs emerge as potential amplifying or limiting factors in renal damage. Vesicles from injured cells may favour fibrosis and disease progression whereas those from cells with regenerative potential appear to promote cell survival. Here, we will discuss the most recent findings of the literature, on the light of the role of EVs in diagnosis and therapy for damage and repair of the renal tissue.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) has shown benefit in a range of experimental models of acute kidney injury, although the reported mechanisms of action and requirement for MSC localization to the kidney have varied. Geng and colleagues now demonstrate that a single intravenous infusion of MSCs given 6 hours after induction of acute muscle necrosis (rhabdomyolysis) robustly ameliorates the resulting acute kidney injury and promotes early intra-renal accumulation of CD206+ (M2) macrophages. The benefit occurred in the absence of MSC localization to the kidney and could be reproduced by adoptive transfer of ex vivo-programmed M2 macrophages.