Neurocognitive effectiveness of haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, controlled 1-year follow-up comparison.
ABSTRACT To investigate the neurocognitive effectiveness of haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
This prospective, randomized, open-label study was conducted from February 2001 to February 2005. Data for the present investigation were obtained from a large epidemiologic and 3-year longitudinal intervention program of first-episode psychosis (DSM-IV criteria) conducted at the outpatient clinic and the inpatient unit at the University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain. One hundred four patients randomly assigned to haloperidol (N = 35), olanzapine (N = 30), or risperidone (N = 39) who completed clinical and cognitive evaluations at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year were included in the final analysis. Thirty-seven healthy individuals were also longitudinally assessed. A neuropsychological battery that comprised 9 cognitive domains was used. The contribution of clinical changes, concomitant medications, and the severity of motor side effects to cognitive changes was controlled. The main outcome measure was cognitive changes at 1-year follow-up.
The 3 treatment groups showed a significant improvement in cognitive scores after 1 year. The differential cognitive effectiveness between antipsychotics was insignificant. The magnitude of cognitive changes was similar in the 3 treatment groups and controls, although a greater improvement on the Finger Tapping Test, Trail Making Test B, and Rey Complex Figure Test was found in the treatment groups. Clinical changes, use of concomitant medications, and the emergence of motor side effects did not significantly account for cognitive changes over time.
Haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone were equally effective in treating cognitive deficits of psychosis. The effect of practice clearly contributes to cognitive score improvements after treatment with antipsychotics. Our results provide important information regarding the practical utility of antipsychotic treatments to improve cognition and could have implications for developing novel approaches for cognitive pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: In the last years, there has been growing evidence linking elevated homocysteine levels with cognitive dysfunction in several neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential relationship between elevated homocysteine levels and cognitive deficits in first-episode psychosis patients. Plasma levels and cognitive performance of 139 patients and 99 healthy volunteers were compared. Patients were classified as elevated homocysteine (>90 percentile for controls) and normal and compared on 22 cognitive outcome measures grouped into cognitive domains known to be impaired in schizophrenia. Patients had a statistically significant increase in plasmatic homocysteine levels. In addition, they presented with significantly increased cognitive deficits. However, no relationship between homocysteine levels and cognitive impairment was detected. These results suggest the need for further studies to clarify the role of homocysteine in the etiology and prognosis of psychosis.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 03/2012; 262(7):557-64. · 2.75 Impact Factor
- Schizophrenia Research 07/2011; 129(2-3):205-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.Applied neuropsychology. Child. 01/2013; 2(1):47-63.