Mousepox detected in a research facility: case report and failure of mouse antibody production testing to identify Ectromelia virus in contaminated mouse serum.
ABSTRACT An outbreak of mousepox in a research institution was caused by Ectromelia-contaminated mouse serum that had been used for bone marrow cell culture and the cells subsequently injected into the footpads of mice. The disease initially was diagnosed by identification of gross and microscopic lesions typical for Ectromelia infection, including foci of necrosis in the liver and spleen and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the skin. The source of infection was determined by PCR analysis to be serum obtained from a commercial vendor. To determine whether viral growth in tissue culture was required to induce viral infection, 36 mice (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J) were experimentally exposed intraperitoneally, intradermally (footpad), or intranasally to contaminated serum or bone marrow cell cultures using the contaminated serum in the culture medium. Mice were euthanized when clinical signs developed or after 12 wk. Necropsy, PCR of spleen, and serum ELISA were performed on all mice. Mice injected with cell cultures and their cage contacts developed mousepox, antibodies to Ectromelia, and lesions, whereas mice injected with serum without cells did not. Mouse antibody production, a tool commonly used to screen biologic materials for viral contamination, failed to detect active Ectromelia contamination in mouse serum.
Article: Genome sequence of erythromelalgia-related poxvirus identifies it as an ectromelia virus strain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Erythromelagia is a condition characterized by attacks of burning pain and inflammation in the extremeties. An epidemic form of this syndrome occurs in secondary students in rural China and a virus referred to as erythromelalgia-associated poxvirus (ERPV) was reported to have been recovered from throat swabs in 1987. Studies performed at the time suggested that ERPV belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus and has similarities with ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. We have determined the complete genome sequence of ERPV and demonstrated that it has 99.8% identity to the Naval strain of ectromelia virus and a slighly lower identity to the Moscow strain. Small DNA deletions in the Naval genome that are absent from ERPV may suggest that the sequenced strain of Naval was not the immediate progenitor of ERPV.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34604. · 4.09 Impact Factor