Characteristics of blood donors and donated blood in sub-Saharan Francophone Africa.
ABSTRACT The importance of blood safety in public health was recognized long ago, and data are essential to plan strategies to improve the status. This study aims to obtain data on blood donor and blood donation characteristics that would complement blood safety data from national and international organizations.
A questionnaire was sent to seven Francophone countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda) and was structured to obtain objective data on blood donors and donated blood and in administrative and technical organization.
The results reflect a poor level of organization of blood transfusion centers in large regions of the African continent, insufficient supply of blood products, high prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections, limited financial resources, a lack of well-trained personnel, and cultural obstacles. Six countries had less than 50% of their personnel trained in transfusion medicine. Only one country had the entire standard operating procedure written. Female donors represented less than 30% of the donors and the range of percentage of hepatitis B found in donors was 2.76% to 18.96%.
The inclusion of these regions in future blood safety surveys and in the development of national blood transfusion programs is essential and will undoubtedly require the assistance of international organizations.
SourceAvailable from: Essam H Ibrahim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for the recipient. Aim: This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of transmissible bacteria such as syphilis and viruses as HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV infections among blood donors at Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was conducted on random blood samples collected from healthy blood donor volunteers, who were referred to Blood Transfusion Centers found at Aseer region, during the period March 2012 to January 2013. All the collected blood units were screened for syphilis antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antibody (HBc-Ab), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2 and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) I/II. All donated blood units were checked for HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA by nucleic acid test (NAT) technology. Results: A 7267 donors (26 females (0.36%) and 7241 males (99.64%)) were accepted for donation with median age of 28 (female) and 30 years (males). Screening resulted in two (0.028%) positive cases for anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies, two (0.028%) positive cases for HIV-Ab but negative for HIV-RNA as confirmed by PCR, 5 (0.069%) positive cases for HCV-Ab with 2 (0.028%) of them positive for HCV-RNA, 71 (0.98%) were HBsAg positive of them 66 (0.91) were positive to HBV-DNA, 449 (6.18%) were anti-HBc positive of them 78 (1.07%) were positive to HBV-DNA. There were no positive samples for HTLV-1/2 antibodies. Conclusion: Prevalence of syphilis, HBsAg, HCV-Ab in Aseer region is very low. The rate of HBc-Ab in units of blood donation is relatively high. The presence of HBV-DNA in HBc-Ab positive donations make it risky for use.Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 01/2015; 6(1):549-556. · 0.35 Impact Factor
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2014.05.002 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infectious risk associated with blood transfusion remains a major public health challenge in Africa, where prevalence rates of the major transfusion transmissible infections [i.e. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV and Syphilis] are amongst the highest in the world. Resource-limited blood services often operate with minimal pre-donation screening safeguards, prompting exclusive reliance on laboratory testing to mitigate infectious risk. Transfusion screening with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been adopted in areas that lack the capacity to support the routine use of more sophisticated technologies. However, uncertainty surrounding the performance of some RDTs in the field has spurred debate regarding their application to blood donation screening. Our review of the literature identified 17 studies that evaluated RDTs for the infectious screening of blood donors in Africa. The review highlights the variable performance of available RDTs and the importance of their use in a quality assured manner. Deficiencies in performance observed with some RDTs underscore the need to validate test kits prior to use under field conditions with locally acquired samples. Suboptimal sensitivities of some available tests, specifically HBV rapid assays, question their suitability in single-test algorithms, particularly in high prevalence regions. Although RDTs have limitations, many of which can be addressed through improved training and quality systems, they are frequently the only viable option for infectious screening in resource poor African countries. Therefore, additional studies and specific guidelines regarding the use of RDTs in the context of blood safety are needed.Transfusion Medicine Reviews 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.09.003 · 4.54 Impact Factor