Article

Endocrine mechanisms mediating remission of diabetes after gastric bypass surgery.

University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
International journal of obesity (2005) (Impact Factor: 5.22). 05/2009; 33 Suppl 1:S33-40. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2009.15
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method to promote major, sustained weight loss. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the most commonly performed bariatric operation, ameliorates virtually all obesity-related comorbid conditions, the most impressive being a dramatic resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). After RYGB, 84% of patients with T2DM experience complete remission of this disease, and virtually all have improved glycemic control. Increasing evidence indicates that the impact of RYGB on T2DM cannot be explained by the effects of weight loss and reduced energy intake alone. Weight-independent antidiabetic actions of RYGB are apparent because of the very rapid resolution of T2DM (before weight loss occurs), the greater improvement of glucose homeostasis after RYGB than after an equivalent weight loss from other means, and the occasional development of very late-onset, pancreatic beta-cell hyperfunction. Several mechanisms probably mediate the direct antidiabetic impact of RYGB, including enhanced nutrient stimulation of L-cell peptides (for example, GLP-1) from the lower intestine, intriguing but still uncharacterized phenomena related to exclusion of the upper intestine from contact with ingested nutrients, compromised ghrelin secretion, and very probably other effects that have yet to be discovered. Research designed to prioritize these mechanisms and identify potential additional mechanisms promises to help optimize surgical design and might also reveal novel pharmaceutical targets for diabetes treatment.

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