APP/PS1KI bigenic mice develop early synaptic deficits and hippocampus atrophy.
ABSTRACT Abeta accumulation has an important function in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with its typical clinical symptoms, like memory impairment and changes in personality. However, the mode of this toxic activity is still a matter of scientific debate. We used the APP/PS1KI mouse model for AD, because it is the only model so far which develops 50% hippocampal CA1 neuron loss at the age of 1 year. Previously, we have shown that this model develops severe learning deficits occurring much earlier at the age of 6 months. This observation prompted us to study the anatomical and cellular basis at this time point in more detail. In the current report, we observed that at 6 months of age there is already a 33% CA1 neuron loss and an 18% atrophy of the hippocampus, together with a drastic reduction of long-term potentiation and disrupted paired pulse facilitation. Interestingly, at 4 months of age, there was no long-term potentiation deficit in CA1. This was accompanied by reduced levels of pre- and post-synaptic markers. We also observed that intraneuronal and total amount of different Abeta peptides including N-modified, fibrillar and oligomeric Abeta species increased and coincided well with CA1 neuron loss. Overall, these data provide the basis for the observed robust working memory deficits in this mouse model for AD at 6 months of age.
Article: The Toxicity of Amyloid β Oligomers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms of Aβ oligomer toxicity which may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, we discuss on the interaction of Aβ oligomers with the membrane through the process of adsorption and insertion. Such interaction gives rises to phase transitions in the sub-structures of the Aβ peptide from α-helical to β-sheet structure. By means of a coarse-grained model, we exhibit the tendency of β-sheet structures to aggregate, thus providing further insights to the process of membrane induced aggregation. We show that the aggregated oligomer causes membrane invagination, which is a precursor to the formation of pore structures and ion channels. Other pathological progressions to AD due to Aβ oligomers are also covered, such as their interaction with the membrane receptors, and their direct versus indirect effects on oxidative stress and intraneuronal accumulation. We further illustrate that the molecule curcumin is a potential Aβ toxicity inhibitor as a β-sheet breaker by having a high propensity to interact with certain Aβ residues without binding to them. The comprehensive understanding gained from these current researches on the various toxicity mechanisms show promises in the provision of better therapeutics and treatment strategies in the near future.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(6):7303-27. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In contrast to extracellular plaque and intracellular tangle pathology, the presence and relevance of intraneuronal Abeta in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still a matter of debate. Human brain tissue offers technical challenges such as post-mortem delay and uneven or prolonged tissue fixation that might affect immunohistochemical staining. In addition, previous studies on intracellular Abeta accumulation in human brain often used antibodies targeting the C-terminus of Abeta and differed strongly in the pretreatments used. To overcome these inconsistencies, we performed extensive parametrical testing using a highly specific N-terminal Abeta antibody detecting the aspartate at position 1, before developing an optimal staining protocol for intraneuronal Abeta detection in paraffin-embedded sections from AD patients. To rule out that this antibody also detects the beta-cleaved APP C-terminal fragment (beta-CTF, C99) bearing the same epitope, paraffin-sections of transgenic mice overexpressing the C99-fragment were stained without any evidence for cross-reactivity in our staining protocol. The staining intensity of intraneuronal Abeta in cortex and hippocampal tissue of 10 controls and 20 sporadic AD cases was then correlated to patient data including sex, Braak stage, plaque load, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In particular, the presence of one or two ApoE4 alleles strongly correlated with an increased accumulation of intraneuronal Abeta peptides. Given that ApoE4 is a major genetic risk factor for AD and is involved in neuronal cholesterol transport, it is tempting to speculate that perturbed intracellular trafficking is involved in the increased intraneuronal Abeta aggregation in AD.Acta Neuropathologica 03/2010; 119(5):555-66. · 9.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since their initial generation in the mid 1990s, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimers's disease (AD) have been proven to be valuable model systems which are indispensable for modern AD research. Whereas most of these models are characterized by extensive amyloid plaque pathology, inflammatory changes and often behavioral deficits, modeling of neuron loss was much less successful. The present paper discusses the current achievements of modeling neuron loss in transgenic mouse models based on APP/Aβ and Tau overexpression and provides an overview of currently available AD mouse models showing these pathological alterations.International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2010; 2010.