Post-translational modifications of Runx1 regulate its activity in the cell.
ABSTRACT In this report we review the current knowledge of the interaction of RUNX1(AML1) with serine/threonine kinases, lysine and arginine methyltransferases, lysine acetyltransferases, and histone deacetylases. We also discuss the effect of RUNX1-ETO fusion gene on DNA methylation. RUNX1 post-transcriptional modification can affect its role in influencing differentiation and self-renewal of hematopoietic cells. The goal of these studies is to develop targets for improved leukemia therapy.
Article: Reversal of p15/INK4b hypermethylation in AML1/ETO-positive and -negative myeloid leukemia cell lines.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In vitro and in vivo, myeloid leukemic and preleukemic cells exhibit variable sensitivity to the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects induced already at low concentrations of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors. The molecular mechanisms underlying this variable sensitivity of leukemic blasts to azanucleosides such as 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) may involve modifier effects of specific fusion proteins such as AML1/ETO. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15/INK4b is one potential target of DNA demethylating activity in AML and MDS where it is frequently silenced by hypermethylation. To study sensitivity to DAC in myeloid leukemia cells, we chose the myeloid cell lines Kasumi-1 (expressing AML1/ETO), KG-1 and KG-1a (both AML1/ETO-negative) all of which a highly methylated p15/INK4b gene. Treatment with DAC resulted in dose-dependent regional demethylation of p15/INK4b in Kasumi-1 and KG-1, but only to a modest degree in KG-1a cells. Demethylation was associated with induction of p15/INK4b protein expression. Growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic activity of DAC was significantly higher in Kasumi-1 than in KG-1a cells, and sensitization of cells to a cooperating effect of All-trans retinoic acid and of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Trichostatin A was observed. DAC-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis were enhanced when AML1/ETO was conditionally expressed in AML1/ETO-negative U-937 cells. In conclusion, hypomethylation and reactivation of p15/INK4b in myeloid cell lines are among the molecular events associated with DAC-induced growth arrest and apoptosis. Further studies of AML1/ETO as a modifier of the epigenotype and sensitivity of myeloid cells to inhibitors of DNMTs and HDACs appear warranted.Leukemia Research 05/2007; 31(4):497-506. · 2.92 Impact Factor
Article: AML1/RUNX1 increases during G1 to S cell cycle progression independent of cytokine-dependent phosphorylation and induces cyclin D3 gene expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AML1/RUNX1, a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family stimulates myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by activating lineage-specific genes. In addition, AML1 induces S phase entry in 32Dcl3 myeloid or Ba/F3 lymphoid cells via transactivation. We now found that AML1 levels are regulated during the cell cycle. 32Dcl3 and Ba/F3 cell cycle fractions were prepared using elutriation. Western blotting and a gel shift/supershift assay demonstrated that endogenous CBF DNA binding and AML1 levels were increased 2-4-fold in S and G(2)/M phase cells compared with G(1) cells. In addition, G(1) arrest induced by mimosine reduced AML1 protein levels. In contrast, AML1 RNA did not vary during cell cycle progression relative to actin RNA. Analysis of exogenous Myc-AML1 or AML1-ER demonstrated a significant reduction in G(1) phase cells, whereas levels of exogenous DNA binding domain alone were constant, lending support to the conclusion that regulation of AML1 protein stability contributes to cell cycle variation in endogenous AML1. However, cytokine-dependent AML1 phosphorylation was independent of cell cycle phase, and an AML1 mutant lacking two ERK phosphorylation sites was still cell cycle-regulated. Inhibition of AML1 activity with the CBFbeta-SMMHC or AML1-ETO oncoproteins reduced cyclin D3 RNA expression, and AML1 bound and activated the cyclin D3 promoter. Signals stimulating G(1) to S cell cycle progression or entry into the cell cycle in immature hematopoietic cells might do so in part by inducing AML1 expression, and mutations altering pathways regulating variation in AML1 stability potentially contribute to leukemic transformation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(15):15678-87. · 4.77 Impact Factor